Drycleaner Site Profiles

Bay Towel, Green Bay, Wisconsin

Description
Historical activity that resulted in contamination.

The site operated as a dry cleaning facility until the early 1980's. The dry cleaning facility moved from this location following a fire in March 1989. The property is being leased as storage space and is currently vacant pending renovation activities. Stoddard solvent was used as the dry cleaning solvent until ~1973, at which time the facility switched to the use of tetrachloroethene. The adjacent properties include light industrial and commercial facilities, office buildings, a fire station and residential dwellings. The Fox River is located down-gradient of the site.

Remediation Status: In groundwater monitoring


Contaminants
Contaminants present and the highest amount detected in both soil and groundwater.


Contaminant Media Concentration (ppb) Nondetect
cis-1,2-Dichloroethene soil 29,000 ppb
cis-1,2-Dichloroethene soil 29,000 ppb
Tetrachloroethene (PCE) soil 29,000 ppb
Tetrachloroethene (PCE) soil 29,000 ppb
Trichloroethene (TCE) soil 29,000 ppb
Trichloroethene (TCE) soil 29,000 ppb
trans-1,2-Dichloroethene soil 29,000 ppb
trans-1,2-Dichloroethene soil 29,000 ppb
Vinyl Chloride soil 29,000 ppb
soil 13,000,000 ppb
soil 49,000 ppb
soil 46 ppb
groundwater 2,700 ppb

Site Hydrology

Deepest Significant Groundwater Contamination:  
Plume Size:  
Average Depth to Groundwater:   5ft

Lithology and Subsurface Geology

 
  Fill consisting of sand with with silt
Depth: 0-3.75ft bgs
3.75ft thick
Conductivity: 0.00915ft/day
Gradient: 0.025ft/ft
 
  silty sand
Depth: 3.75-13ft bgs
9.25ft thick
 
  Clay with occassional trace silt and organic material
Depth: 13ft bgs

Pathways and DNAPL Presence

checkGroundwater
Sediments
checkSoil
checkPresumptive Evidence of DNAPL

Vapor Intrusion Pathway

Has the potential for vapor intrusion (VI) been evaluated?
  No
Has a vapor mitigation system been installed?
  Yes 
Type of Vapor Mitigation System(s):
  Passive Vapor Barrier
Sub-slab Depressurization
Sub-slab Pressurization
Passive Venting
HVAC controls/modifications
Soil Vapor Extraction

Remediation Scenario

Cleanup Goals:
  To protect human health and the environment while allowing successful redevelopment. To achieve closure and compliance with Wisconsin standards.
Remedy Level:
  Full Scale Remedy

Technologies

in Situ Bioremediation
 

Why the technology was selected:
Based on technical and economic feasibility, none of the remedial action options were suitable for use as a sole remedy. Most feasible options were combined to create a remedial strategy.

Date implemented:
June 2003

Final remediation design:
Excavation of 226.85 tons of soil (non-hazardous waste) from the parking lot. Trench excavation of 178.76 tons of soil (hazardous) from beneath the building (infiltration gallery). Application of carbon amendment solution (initially 25:1 solution of potable water and food-grade molasses; later 15:1) to the infiltration gallery. Installation of a passive vapor extraction system.

Other technologies used:
Enhanced biodegradation - carbon amendment solution consisting of water and molasses.

Results to date:
A total of 30 injection events have taken place.

Since the start of injection activities, one well has had PCE decrease from 89,000 ug/L to below laboratory detection limits. The concentration of TCE has decreased from 26,000 ug/L to 1,200 ug/L. The concentration of daughter products have increased since the start of remediation activities which is to be expected.

Next Steps:
Continued groundwater monitoring for natural attenuation parameters.

5/2012 - Injection events have decreased groundwater concentrations, but the site has not met closure criteria. A new round of molasses injection is being conducted. Off-site migration of vapors is being investigated.

Cost to Design and Implement:
$281,802

in Situ Vapor Mitigation
 

Why the technology was selected:
Based on technical and economic feasibility, none of the remedial action options were suitable for use as a sole remedy. Most feasible options were combined to create a remedial strategy.

Date implemented:
June 2003

Final remediation design:
Excavation of 226.85 tons of soil (non-hazardous waste) from the parking lot. Trench excavation of 178.76 tons of soil (hazardous) from beneath the building (infiltration gallery). Application of carbon amendment solution (initially 25:1 solution of potable water and food-grade molasses; later 15:1) to the infiltration gallery. Installation of a passive vapor extraction system.

Results to date:
A total of 30 injection events have taken place.

Since the start of injection activities, one well has had PCE decrease from 89,000 ug/L to below laboratory detection limits. The concentration of TCE has decreased from 26,000 ug/L to 1,200 ug/L. The concentration of daughter products have increased since the start of remediation activities which is to be expected.

Next Steps:
Continued groundwater monitoring for natural attenuation parameters.

5/2012 - Injection events have decreased groundwater concentrations, but the site has not met closure criteria. A new round of molasses injection is being conducted. Off-site migration of vapors is being investigated.

Cost to Design and Implement:
$281,802

in Situ Soil Removal
 

Why the technology was selected:
Based on technical and economic feasibility, none of the remedial action options were suitable for use as a sole remedy. Most feasible options were combined to create a remedial strategy.

Date implemented:
June 2003

Final remediation design:
Excavation of 226.85 tons of soil (non-hazardous waste) from the parking lot. Trench excavation of 178.76 tons of soil (hazardous) from beneath the building (infiltration gallery). Application of carbon amendment solution (initially 25:1 solution of potable water and food-grade molasses; later 15:1) to the infiltration gallery. Installation of a passive vapor extraction system.

Results to date:
A total of 30 injection events have taken place.

Since the start of injection activities, one well has had PCE decrease from 89,000 ug/L to below laboratory detection limits. The concentration of TCE has decreased from 26,000 ug/L to 1,200 ug/L. The concentration of daughter products have increased since the start of remediation activities which is to be expected.

Next Steps:
Continued groundwater monitoring for natural attenuation parameters.

5/2012 - Injection events have decreased groundwater concentrations, but the site has not met closure criteria. A new round of molasses injection is being conducted. Off-site migration of vapors is being investigated.

Cost to Design and Implement:
$281,802

ex Situ Soil Removal
 

Why the technology was selected:
Based on technical and economic feasibility, none of the remedial action options were suitable for use as a sole remedy. Most feasible options were combined to create a remedial strategy.

Date implemented:
June 2003

Final remediation design:
Excavation of 226.85 tons of soil (non-hazardous waste) from the parking lot. Trench excavation of 178.76 tons of soil (hazardous) from beneath the building (infiltration gallery). Application of carbon amendment solution (initially 25:1 solution of potable water and food-grade molasses; later 15:1) to the infiltration gallery. Installation of a passive vapor extraction system.

Results to date:
A total of 30 injection events have taken place.

Since the start of injection activities, one well has had PCE decrease from 89,000 ug/L to below laboratory detection limits. The concentration of TCE has decreased from 26,000 ug/L to 1,200 ug/L. The concentration of daughter products have increased since the start of remediation activities which is to be expected.

Next Steps:
Continued groundwater monitoring for natural attenuation parameters.

5/2012 - Injection events have decreased groundwater concentrations, but the site has not met closure criteria. A new round of molasses injection is being conducted. Off-site migration of vapors is being investigated.

Cost to Design and Implement:
$281,802

in Situ Vapor Mitigation
 

Why the technology was selected:
Based on technical and economic feasibility, none of the remedial action options were suitable for use as a sole remedy. Most feasible options were combined to create a remedial strategy.

Date implemented:
June 2003

Final remediation design:
Excavation of 226.85 tons of soil (non-hazardous waste) from the parking lot. Trench excavation of 178.76 tons of soil (hazardous) from beneath the building (infiltration gallery). Application of carbon amendment solution (initially 25:1 solution of potable water and food-grade molasses; later 15:1) to the infiltration gallery. Installation of a passive vapor extraction system.

Results to date:
A total of 30 injection events have taken place.

Since the start of injection activities, one well has had PCE decrease from 89,000 ug/L to below laboratory detection limits. The concentration of TCE has decreased from 26,000 ug/L to 1,200 ug/L. The concentration of daughter products have increased since the start of remediation activities which is to be expected.

Next Steps:
Continued groundwater monitoring for natural attenuation parameters.

5/2012 - Injection events have decreased groundwater concentrations, but the site has not met closure criteria. A new round of molasses injection is being conducted. Off-site migration of vapors is being investigated.

Cost to Design and Implement:
$281,802

Costs

Cost for Assessment:
  $101,900
Cost for Operation and Maintenance:
  $42,820 Total expended to date (2014) - $398,349 reimbursed plus $28,261 deductible
Total Costs for Cleanup:
 

Lessons Learned

Test the concrete/asphalt to determine appropriate means of disposal (non-hazardous or hazardous waste).

Contacts

Kristin DuFresne
Department of Natural Resources
2984 Shawano Avenue
Green Bay, WI 54313-6727
920-662-5443
kristin.dufresne@wisconsin.gov

Ed Buc
ARCADIS
126 North Jefferson Street, Suite 400
Milwaukee, WI 53202
414-276-7742
ebuc@arcadis-us.com