Drycleaner Site Profiles

City Hall (Former Swift Cleaners), Jacksonville Beach, Florida

Description
Historical activity that resulted in contamination.

The City Hall site is located in Jacksonville Beach, approximately 1,000 feet west of the Atlantic Ocean. The surrounding area is comprised of mostly commercial establishments. The former drycleaning business (Swift Cleaners) operated at this site from January 1917 until December 1962. Based upon the typical drycleaning processes during the early period of operation, it is likely that the facility originally used petroleum-based products and converted to PCE at a later date. The City of Jacksonville Beach purchased the property in 1963. The former Swift Cleaners building was demolished and the Jacksonville Beach City Hall was built on the site. In 1998, the City Hall building was demolished. Currently, a Walgreens drug store and a restaurant are located on the site. The former Swift Cleaners building was located in what is currently the parking lot for the drug store. The approximate location of the building was determined by reviewing historical aerial photographs and Sanborn maps.

Remediation Status: In groundwater monitoring


Contaminants
Contaminants present and the highest amount detected in both soil and groundwater.


Contaminant Media Concentration (ppb) Nondetect
cis-1,2-Dichloroethene groundwater
cis-1,2-Dichloroethene soil
Tetrachloroethene (PCE) groundwater
Tetrachloroethene (PCE) soil
Trichloroethene (TCE) groundwater
Trichloroethene (TCE) soil
Vinyl Chloride groundwater

Site Hydrology

Deepest Significant Groundwater Contamination:   40ft bgs
Plume Size:   Plume Length: 600ft
Plume Width: 170ft
Plume Thickness: 36ft
Average Depth to Groundwater:   4.18ft

Lithology and Subsurface Geology

 
  very fine-grained sands interbedded with clayey, silt zones
Depth: 0-30ft bgs
30ft thick
Conductivity: 14.01ft/day
Gradient: 0.0018ft/ft
 
  silty sand interbedded with clayey, silt zones
Depth: 30-50ft bgs
20ft thick

Pathways and DNAPL Presence

checkGroundwater
Sediments
checkSoil
DNAPL Present

Vapor Intrusion Pathway

Has the potential for vapor intrusion (VI) been evaluated?
  No
Has a vapor mitigation system been installed?
  No 
Additional VI Information:
  Contaminated soil was excavated at the site.

Remediation Scenario

Cleanup Goals:
  Groundwater- Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs); PCE= 3 ug/l, TCE= 3 ug/l, cis 1,2-DCE= 70 ug/l, VC= 1 ug/l
Soils - leachability based Cleanup Target Levels (CTLs), PCE= 30 ug/kg, TCE = 30 ug/kg, TRPH = 340 mg/kg.
Remedy Level:
  Full Scale Remedy

Technologies

In Situ Biostimulation
 

Why the technology was selected:
Biostimulation was chosen because reductive dechlorination was an active process in groundwater at the site (PCE daughter products, including vinyl chloride were present in groundwater).

Date implemented:
Five (biostimulation) k-lactate injection events conducted: September 12-14, 2005, February 23-24, 2006, January 31-February 2, 2008, March 26-28, 2008 and June 18-20, 2008.

Final remediation design:
The first two biostimuation injection events utilized four (4) injection wells, screened 5-17 ft BLS. Each injection event used 55 gallons of 60% potassium lactate solution mixed with 3,300 gallons of water. The third and fourth potassium lactate injection events utilized six (6) injection wells. 110 gallons of 60% potassium lactate solution was mixed with 5,290 gallons of water. The final biostimulation injection event utilized six injection wells. 110 gallons of 60% potassium lactate solution plus 165 gallons of EOS were mixed with 5,125 gallons of water and injected.

Results to date:
A groundwater monitoring event conducted on April 2, 2009 found no detectable PCE or TCE in groundwater. The only contaminant with concentrations exceeding an MCL was vinyl chloride (highest concentration 25 ug/l).

Next Steps:
Annual monitoring

In Situ Chemical Oxidation
 

Why the technology was selected:
In-situ chemical oxidation using Fenton's reagent was chosen as the groundwater remedial technology based on the presence of a relatively relatively permeable surficial aquifer, the results of bench scale testing and the benefits of not having to extract, treat and dispose groundwater. Additonally, the target area was accessible for direct injection.

Date implemented:
Bench Test & Treatability Study for Chemical Oxidation-February 2002 First Chemical Oxidation Injection -March 19-22, 2002 Second Chemical Oxidation Injection -April 23-24, 2002

Final remediation design:
Two chemical oxidation injections and a soil excavation and five potassium lactate injection events have been completed at this site. The chemical oxidation injections were implemented using Fenton's reagent. Specifically, each injection was implemented using In-Situ Oxidative Technologies, Inc. The injections were conducted approximately one month apart using the following design: Injection points: 40 total (20 clustered dual-zone). Using direct-push reagents were injected from 3 to 11 ft bgs and 11 to 17 ft bgs. Volume: approximately 240 gallons 12% H2O2 and 120 gallons catalyst per injection point. Area: 1,000 square feet Rate of Injection: 10-11 gpm (catalyst) and 8-10 gpm (oxidizer) Radius of Influence: 10-12 ft

Results to date:
A groundwater monitoring event conducted on April 2, 2009 found no detectable PCE or TCE in groundwater. The only contaminant with concentrations exceeding an MCL was vinyl chloride (highest concentration 25 ug/l).

Next Steps:
Annual monitoring

Cost to Design and Implement:
$9,300 (Remedial Action Plan) $10,000 (bench test & treatability study) $117,000 (2 chemical oxidation injections)

Ex Situ Soil Removal
 

Why the technology was selected:
Excavation was chosen as a remedy after additional soil sampling found contamination near the former location of the building that housed the drycleaning operation. The contaminated soil was accesible (shallow depth to water and located under a parking lot).

Date implemented:
Soil Excavation - June 7-12, 2004

Final remediation design:
In June 2004 - 73.86 tons (approximately 57 cubic yards) of soil was removed. The excavated area was approximately 10 ft x 34 ft x 4.5 ft deep.

Results to date:
A groundwater monitoring event conducted on April 2, 2009 found no detectable PCE or TCE in groundwater. The only contaminant with concentrations exceeding an MCL was vinyl chloride (highest concentration 25 ug/l).

Next Steps:
Annual monitoring

Cost to Design and Implement:
$39,506 (Soil Excavation)

Costs

Cost for Assessment:
  $72,000
Cost for Operation and Maintenance:
  $7,700 (Annual Monitoring)
Total Costs for Cleanup:
 

Lessons Learned

1. Although historical aerial photographs and Sanborn maps were useful in determining the location of prior drycleaning facility, nothing was known concerning the equipment layout at the facility or any of the operating details. At sites like this, a soil gas survey is a useful tool in locating contaminant source areas.
2. Removal of contaminated soil has made a significant difference to contaminant concentrations within the groundwater at this site.

Contacts

Melissa Garvin, Environmental Specialist
Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Waste Cleanup
2600 Blair Stone Road (MS4520)
Phone: 850) 245-8994
E-Mail: Melissa.Garvin@dep.state.fl.us

Kelly Baltz, P.E.
Golder Associates
9428 Baymeadows Road, Suite 400
Jacksonville, FL 32256
Phone: (904)-363-3430
Kelly.Baltz@golder.com

Site Specific References

Contamination Assessment Report: 2000

Remedial Action Plan for excavation & chemical oxidation: November 2001.

Chemical Oxidation Pilot Report: June 2002.

Source Removal Completion Report: July 2004.

Biostimulation Injection Reports: 2005 - 2008.

Modified Active Soil Gas Sampling Report: 2007

Groundwater Monitoring Reports: 2002 - 2009.









1. Harding ESE, Ic. Remedial Action Plan-November 15, 2001
2. Harding ESE Inc. Chemical Oxidation Report- June 6, 2002
3. Harding ESE, Inc. 1st Quarterly Monitoring Report- November 5, 2002
4. Golder Associates Inc. Additional soil and Groundwater Sampling Report - December 19, 2003
5. Golder Associates Inc. Source Removal Completion Report -July 19, 2004
6. Golder Associates Inc. Year 2- Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report -October 14, 2004