Drycleaner Site Profiles

Cottage Cleaners, Memphis, Tennessee

Description
Historical activity that resulted in contamination.

The former Cottage Cleaners is located in a commercial area of Memphis. The site building occupied a 4,500 square foot suite located in a strip mall. The drycleaner operated from 1970 until 1995. The site building is currently occupied by a clothing retailer.

Remediation Status: In groundwater monitoring


Contaminants
Contaminants present and the highest amount detected in both soil and groundwater.


Contaminant Media Concentration (ppb) Nondetect
cis-1,2-Dichloroethene groundwater 410 ppb
cis-1,2-Dichloroethene soil 20 ppb
Tetrachloroethene (PCE) groundwater 7,190 ppb
Tetrachloroethene (PCE) soil 1,460 ppb
Trichloroethene (TCE) groundwater 71.1 ppb
Trichloroethene (TCE) soil 6 ppb
Vinyl Chloride groundwater ND
Vinyl Chloride soil ND

Site Hydrology

Deepest Significant Groundwater Contamination:  
Plume Size:  
Average Depth to Groundwater:   35.5ft

Lithology and Subsurface Geology

 
  loess
Depth: 0-8ft bgs
8ft thick
Conductivity: 0.002834646ft/day
Gradient: 0.0021ft/ft
 
  clayey silt to sandy clay
Depth: 8-14ft bgs
6ft thick
 
  fine sand with some silts and clays
Depth: 14-55ft bgs
41ft thick

Pathways and DNAPL Presence

checkGroundwater
Sediments
checkSoil
checkPresumptive Evidence of DNAPL

Vapor Intrusion Pathway

Has the potential for vapor intrusion (VI) been evaluated?
  Yes
How was the site evaluated?
  Indoor air sampling
Results of VI evaluation:
  The VI pathway was ruled out (or does not exist)
Has a vapor mitigation system been installed?
  No 

Remediation Scenario

Cleanup Goals:
  The ultimate goal at the former Cottage Cleaners site with an interim goal for plume contraction and the restriction of contamination on-site.

Technologies

In Situ Biostimulation
 

Why the technology was selected:
In-situ biostimulation coupled with the abiotic remedy, zero valent iron (ZVI) was designed by Innovative Environmental Technologies Inc (IET) for the fourth injection event at the former Cottage Cleaners site due to the presence of reductive dechlorination that was occurring on the site. Reductive dechlorination was occurring at the site, but needed to be stimulated with both abiotic and biotic processes.

Date implemented:
Fall 2008- Biostimulation and ZVI

Final remediation design:
All four in-situ remedial material injections were conducted using direct push. The January 2006 and April 2006 chemical oxidation injections were composed of sodium permanganate and were conducted by Vironix. The treatment areas included inside the drycleaning facility (western portion) and outside the building on the western side of the building. The third injection was designed and implemented by Innovative Environmental Technologies, Inc (IET) and was a chemical oxidation in the inside points of the drycleaner. The chemical oxidation implemented was a combination of sodium persulfate and chelated iron that not only activated the persulfate, but also provided a source of electron acceptors. A solution of potassium permanganate was also used. The fourth injection event was also designed and conducted by IET. The fourth injection event was a full-scale remedial design using biostimulation and ZVI to stimulate reductive dechlorination that was occurring at the site. The remedial design included the use of hydrogen donors such as HRC, calcium proportionate, and yeast extract, nutrients and vitamins, an oxygen scavenger, and zero valent iron.

Results to date:
During the first two injections, excessive surfacing (daylighting) of the sodium permanganate occurred, indicating that the remedial material did not reach the contaminated area sufficiently. This problem was averted by switching remedial contractors as well as by using potassium permanganate instead of the less soluble sodium permanganate. The pre-remedial levels of groundwater contamination were (highest concentration in MW-3, west of the building, June 05) PCE: 7.190 mg/L TCE: 0.071 mg/L cis-1,2-DCE: 0.410 mg/L Vinyl Chloride: ND Post-Injection Groundwater Results (MW-4, south-west of building, March 08) PCE: 1.970 mg/L TCE: 0.018 mg/L Cis-1,2-DCE: 0.0485 mg/L Vinyl chloride: ND Four monitoring wells were in the targeted area for the biostimulation and ZVI remedial event, MW-1, MW-2, MW-3 and MW-4. MW-3 was destroyed in 2008 and was therefore not sampled. MW-3 was strongly affected by the chemical oxidation injections. The concentration of PCE decreased from 3.1 mg/L in January 2006, before the ISCO, to 0.05 mg/L in March 2007, after the ISCO events. MW-1 is located east of the former drycleaner and was affected by 2 direct push injection in 2008. The concentration of PCE decreased from 0.264 mg/L pre-injection to 0.127 mg/L in September 2009. TCE and cis-1,2-DCE concentrations remain below the state and EPA MCLs. MW-2 is located west of the former drycleaner and was strongly affected by both the chemical oxidation injections and the biostimulation and ZVI injection. Pre-oxidation concentrations were as follows in January 2006. PCE: 4.6 mg/L TCE: 0.081 mg/L Cis: 0.570 mg/L After the oxidation event in March 2007, the concentrations were as follows. PCE: 0.146 mg/L TCE: ND CIS: ND Rebounding occurred in MW-2 after the oxidation event, most likely to the mobilization of sorbed mass on the soil particles. The concentration of PCE increased to 1.77 mg/L in the March 2008 sampling event. After the injection of the organic hydrogen donors and ZVI, the concentrations of PCE, TCE, and cis-1,2-DCE decreased dramatically. The concentration of the contaminants of concern during the September 2009 sampling event are as follows: PCE: 0.00386 mg/L TCE: 0.00246 mg/L CIS: 0.107 mg/L VC: 0.144 mg/L MW-4 is located west of the former drycleaner and was affected by the biostimulation. MW-4 was not targeted during the ISCO injections. The concentrations were as follows pre-injection in March 2008. PCE: 1.97 mg/L TCE: 0.0189 mg/L CIS: 0.029 mg/L The concentrations after the injection event were as following in September 2009. PCE: 1.550 mg/L TCE: 0.0157 mg/L CIS: 0.120 mg/L The smaller decreases in MW-4 may be attributed to still positive ORP present in MW-4 during both post-injection monitoring events. The redox potential decreased from +581 mV to +48.9 mV, indicating that the remedial material affected the groundwater in the vicinity of MW-4.

Next Steps:
Bi-annual groundwater monitoring.

Cost to Design and Implement:
$246,537.00 (Interim action injections and groundwater monitoring designed and implemented by the consultant) $66,869.00 (designed and implemented by IET)

In Situ Chemical Oxidation
 

Why the technology was selected:
Chemical oxidation via potassium permanganate and sodium permanganate was conducted at the site first in order to oxidize the large concentrations of PCE present in the source area. A third chemical oxidation was conducted on the site with sodium permanganate, chelated iron, and sodium persulfate to stimulate biological activity after the chemical oxidation had occurred with the presence of sulfate.

Date implemented:
Winter 2006- Chemical Oxidation Spring 2006- Chemical Oxidation Winter 2006- Chemical Oxidation

Final remediation design:
All four in-situ remedial material injections were conducted using direct push. The January 2006 and April 2006 chemical oxidation injections were composed of sodium permanganate and were conducted by Vironix. The treatment areas included inside the drycleaning facility (western portion) and outside the building on the western side of the building. The third injection was designed and implemented by Innovative Environmental Technologies, Inc (IET) and was a chemical oxidation in the inside points of the drycleaner. The chemical oxidation implemented was a combination of sodium persulfate and chelated iron that not only activated the persulfate, but also provided a source of electron acceptors. A solution of potassium permanganate was also used. The fourth injection event was also designed and conducted by IET. The fourth injection event was a full-scale remedial design using biostimulation and ZVI to stimulate reductive dechlorination that was occurring at the site. The remedial design included the use of hydrogen donors such as HRC, calcium proportionate, and yeast extract, nutrients and vitamins, an oxygen scavenger, and zero valent iron.

Results to date:
During the first two injections, excessive surfacing (daylighting) of the sodium permanganate occurred, indicating that the remedial material did not reach the contaminated area sufficiently. This problem was averted by switching remedial contractors as well as by using potassium permanganate instead of the less soluble sodium permanganate. The pre-remedial levels of groundwater contamination were (highest concentration in MW-3, west of the building, June 05) PCE: 7.190 mg/L TCE: 0.071 mg/L cis-1,2-DCE: 0.410 mg/L Vinyl Chloride: ND Post-Injection Groundwater Results (MW-4, south-west of building, March 08) PCE: 1.970 mg/L TCE: 0.018 mg/L Cis-1,2-DCE: 0.0485 mg/L Vinyl chloride: ND Four monitoring wells were in the targeted area for the biostimulation and ZVI remedial event, MW-1, MW-2, MW-3 and MW-4. MW-3 was destroyed in 2008 and was therefore not sampled. MW-3 was strongly affected by the chemical oxidation injections. The concentration of PCE decreased from 3.1 mg/L in January 2006, before the ISCO, to 0.05 mg/L in March 2007, after the ISCO events. MW-1 is located east of the former drycleaner and was affected by 2 direct push injection in 2008. The concentration of PCE decreased from 0.264 mg/L pre-injection to 0.127 mg/L in September 2009. TCE and cis-1,2-DCE concentrations remain below the state and EPA MCLs. MW-2 is located west of the former drycleaner and was strongly affected by both the chemical oxidation injections and the biostimulation and ZVI injection. Pre-oxidation concentrations were as follows in January 2006. PCE: 4.6 mg/L TCE: 0.081 mg/L Cis: 0.570 mg/L After the oxidation event in March 2007, the concentrations were as follows. PCE: 0.146 mg/L TCE: ND CIS: ND Rebounding occurred in MW-2 after the oxidation event, most likely to the mobilization of sorbed mass on the soil particles. The concentration of PCE increased to 1.77 mg/L in the March 2008 sampling event. After the injection of the organic hydrogen donors and ZVI, the concentrations of PCE, TCE, and cis-1,2-DCE decreased dramatically. The concentration of the contaminants of concern during the September 2009 sampling event are as follows: PCE: 0.00386 mg/L TCE: 0.00246 mg/L CIS: 0.107 mg/L VC: 0.144 mg/L MW-4 is located west of the former drycleaner and was affected by the biostimulation. MW-4 was not targeted during the ISCO injections. The concentrations were as follows pre-injection in March 2008. PCE: 1.97 mg/L TCE: 0.0189 mg/L CIS: 0.029 mg/L The concentrations after the injection event were as following in September 2009. PCE: 1.550 mg/L TCE: 0.0157 mg/L CIS: 0.120 mg/L The smaller decreases in MW-4 may be attributed to still positive ORP present in MW-4 during both post-injection monitoring events. The redox potential decreased from +581 mV to +48.9 mV, indicating that the remedial material affected the groundwater in the vicinity of MW-4.

Next Steps:
Bi-annual groundwater monitoring.

Cost to Design and Implement:
$246,537.00 (Interim action injections and groundwater monitoring designed and implemented by the consultant) $66,869.00 (designed and implemented by IET)

In Situ Zero Valent Iron
 

Why the technology was selected:
In-situ biostimulation coupled with the abiotic remedy, zero valent iron (ZVI) was designed by Innovative Environmental Technologies Inc (IET) for the fourth injection event at the former Cottage Cleaners site due to the presence of reductive dechlorination that was occurring on the site. Reductive dechlorination was occurring at the site, but needed to be stimulated with both abiotic and biotic processes.

Date implemented:
Fall 2008- Biostimulation and ZVI

Final remediation design:
All four in-situ remedial material injections were conducted using direct push. The January 2006 and April 2006 chemical oxidation injections were composed of sodium permanganate and were conducted by Vironix. The treatment areas included inside the drycleaning facility (western portion) and outside the building on the western side of the building. The third injection was designed and implemented by Innovative Environmental Technologies, Inc (IET) and was a chemical oxidation in the inside points of the drycleaner. The chemical oxidation implemented was a combination of sodium persulfate and chelated iron that not only activated the persulfate, but also provided a source of electron acceptors. A solution of potassium permanganate was also used. The fourth injection event was also designed and conducted by IET. The fourth injection event was a full-scale remedial design using biostimulation and ZVI to stimulate reductive dechlorination that was occurring at the site. The remedial design included the use of hydrogen donors such as HRC, calcium proportionate, and yeast extract, nutrients and vitamins, an oxygen scavenger, and zero valent iron.

Results to date:
During the first two injections, excessive surfacing (daylighting) of the sodium permanganate occurred, indicating that the remedial material did not reach the contaminated area sufficiently. This problem was averted by switching remedial contractors as well as by using potassium permanganate instead of the less soluble sodium permanganate. The pre-remedial levels of groundwater contamination were (highest concentration in MW-3, west of the building, June 05) PCE: 7.190 mg/L TCE: 0.071 mg/L cis-1,2-DCE: 0.410 mg/L Vinyl Chloride: ND Post-Injection Groundwater Results (MW-4, south-west of building, March 08) PCE: 1.970 mg/L TCE: 0.018 mg/L Cis-1,2-DCE: 0.0485 mg/L Vinyl chloride: ND Four monitoring wells were in the targeted area for the biostimulation and ZVI remedial event, MW-1, MW-2, MW-3 and MW-4. MW-3 was destroyed in 2008 and was therefore not sampled. MW-3 was strongly affected by the chemical oxidation injections. The concentration of PCE decreased from 3.1 mg/L in January 2006, before the ISCO, to 0.05 mg/L in March 2007, after the ISCO events. MW-1 is located east of the former drycleaner and was affected by 2 direct push injection in 2008. The concentration of PCE decreased from 0.264 mg/L pre-injection to 0.127 mg/L in September 2009. TCE and cis-1,2-DCE concentrations remain below the state and EPA MCLs. MW-2 is located west of the former drycleaner and was strongly affected by both the chemical oxidation injections and the biostimulation and ZVI injection. Pre-oxidation concentrations were as follows in January 2006. PCE: 4.6 mg/L TCE: 0.081 mg/L Cis: 0.570 mg/L After the oxidation event in March 2007, the concentrations were as follows. PCE: 0.146 mg/L TCE: ND CIS: ND Rebounding occurred in MW-2 after the oxidation event, most likely to the mobilization of sorbed mass on the soil particles. The concentration of PCE increased to 1.77 mg/L in the March 2008 sampling event. After the injection of the organic hydrogen donors and ZVI, the concentrations of PCE, TCE, and cis-1,2-DCE decreased dramatically. The concentration of the contaminants of concern during the September 2009 sampling event are as follows: PCE: 0.00386 mg/L TCE: 0.00246 mg/L CIS: 0.107 mg/L VC: 0.144 mg/L MW-4 is located west of the former drycleaner and was affected by the biostimulation. MW-4 was not targeted during the ISCO injections. The concentrations were as follows pre-injection in March 2008. PCE: 1.97 mg/L TCE: 0.0189 mg/L CIS: 0.029 mg/L The concentrations after the injection event were as following in September 2009. PCE: 1.550 mg/L TCE: 0.0157 mg/L CIS: 0.120 mg/L The smaller decreases in MW-4 may be attributed to still positive ORP present in MW-4 during both post-injection monitoring events. The redox potential decreased from +581 mV to +48.9 mV, indicating that the remedial material affected the groundwater in the vicinity of MW-4.

Next Steps:
Bi-annual groundwater monitoring.

Cost to Design and Implement:
$246,537.00 (Interim action injections and groundwater monitoring designed and implemented by the consultant) $66,869.00 (designed and implemented by IET)

Costs

Cost for Assessment:
  $64,249.00
Cost for Operation and Maintenance:
 
Total Costs for Cleanup:
  $377,655.00

Contacts

Charles Rowan
Drycleaner Environmental Response Program
L&C Annex, 4th Floor
401 Church Street
Nashville, Tennessee 37243
615-532-7823

Elizabeth Bishop
Innovative Environmental Technologies
6130 Kit Road
Pipersville, PA 18947
www.iet-inc.net
888-721-8283
elizabethbishop@iet-inc.net