Drycleaner Site Profiles

Former Modern Cleaners, Columbia, Tennessee

Description
Historical activity that resulted in contamination.

The site was an active drycleaning facility from 1947 until 2001. Stoddard solvent was used at the facility from 1947 until 1995, when the drycleaner switched to PCE from 1995 until 2001, when the facility closed. During a facility inspection in 2002, 25 drums were found to be stored outside the rear of the facility. Several of the stored drums were leaking PCE contaminated fluid. Two contamination areas were identified at the site surrounding the site building at the locations of the former drycleaning machines, as well as near the rear doors of the facility. The facility is located in a mixed residential and commercial area and occupies a 5,000 square foot stand-alone building.

Remediation Status: In groundwater monitoring


Contaminants
Contaminants present and the highest amount detected in both soil and groundwater.


Contaminant Media Concentration (ppb) Nondetect
cis-1,2-Dichloroethene groundwater
free-phase Stoddard's Solvent groundwater
free-phase Stoddard's Solvent soil
Tetrachloroethene (PCE) groundwater
Tetrachloroethene (PCE) soil
Trichloroethene (TCE) groundwater
Trichloroethene (TCE) soil
Vinyl Chloride groundwater ND

Site Hydrology

Deepest Significant Groundwater Contamination:   32ft bgs
Plume Size:   Plume Length: 90ft
Plume Width: 45ft
Plume Thickness: 30ft
Average Depth to Groundwater:   20ft

Lithology and Subsurface Geology

 
  brown silty clay with some sand, marl, coquina, and gravel
Depth: 0-50ft bgs
50ft thick
Conductivity: 0.002834646ft/day
Gradient: 0.06ft/ft
Hermitage Limestone Fromation
  limestone

Pathways and DNAPL Presence

checkGroundwater
Sediments
checkSoil
checkPresumptive Evidence of DNAPL

Vapor Intrusion Pathway

Has the potential for vapor intrusion (VI) been evaluated?
  No
Has a vapor mitigation system been installed?
  No 
Additional VI Information:
  The VI Pathway was not evaluated because the site is a stand-alone building that is currently unoccupied.

Remediation Scenario

Cleanup Goals:
  The clean-up goal at the site is to meet groundwater standards, with an interim goal of plume contraction.
Remedy Level:
  Full Scale Remedy

Technologies

In Situ Biostimulation
 

Why the technology was selected:
An Emergency Excavation was performed at the site in Fall 2002 to remove contaminated soil associated with the 25 drums at the rear of the facility. Lactate injections were chosen first to attempt to assist breakdown in the plume fringes. Chemical Oxidation was selected as a result of groundwater pH ranges and lack of PCE's anaerobic daughter product concentrations in soil and groundwater within affected area signifying that reductive dechlorination wasn't naturally occuring.

Date implemented:
Fall 2002- Excavation Fall 2005- Lactate Injections Fall 2006-Chemical Oxidation Phase I Spring 2007-Chemical Oxidation Phase II

Final remediation design:
The Emergency Excavation removed soil from a 15'x15'x14' area. Approximately 51 tons of contaminated soil and 2,000 gallons of contaminated pit water due to heavy rains that partially filled the open excavation, were disposed of as hazardous waste. Sodium lactate was injected into the subsurface at the site during the closure of temporary monitoring points. A total of 300 pounds of sodium lactate was injected into the subsurface. During the Fall 2006 injection event, Innovative Environmental Technologies (IET) designed and implemented a remedial event that utilized 17 direct-push injections from 16-18 feet bgs and 35-37 feet bgs. The chemical oxidation event utilized 1,850 pounds of sodium persulfate, 1,235 pounds of ZVI, and 455 gallons of 12.5% hydrogen peroxide. The second chemical oxidation event in Spring 2007 involved 17 direct push injections at the same depths as the first oxidation event. The chemical oxidation event utilized 16,380 pounds of sodium persulfate, 766 pounds of ZVI, and 1,524 gallons of 8% hydrogen peroxide.

Results to date:
Analytical GW Data PCE Well 2005(ppb) 2009(ppb) MW-1 390 36 MW-2 340 18 MW-3 440 270 MW-4 18000 3500 MW-5 16000 20000 MW-6 2200 370 A 46% PCE reduction throughout the site has been observed, however PCE concentrations in MW-5 have increased, most likely due to the displacement of a sorbed mass of PCE, which might have occurred during the injections events or the abandonment of MW-4A. MW-4A was improperly installed in 2002 and was abandoned in 2008. During the abandonment of the former borehole area, the driller may have pressurized the area to prepare for closure. Water was noted to have been blown out of two nearby monitoring wells that drastically moved contaminants in the subsurface.

Next Steps:
The next step for the Former Modern Cleaners is the installation of two additional monitoring wells down-gradient of the site to redefine the contamination plume. Additional remedial injections may be needed to treat the new leading edge of the plume pushed west in the direction of the property line.

Cost to Design and Implement:
All technologies: Excavation-$54,129 Groundwater-$140,169

In Situ Chemical Oxidation
 

Why the technology was selected:
An Emergency Excavation was performed at the site in Fall 2002 to remove contaminated soil associated with the 25 drums at the rear of the facility. Lactate injections were chosen first to attempt to assist breakdown in the plume fringes. Chemical Oxidation was selected as a result of groundwater pH ranges and lack of PCE's anaerobic daughter product concentrations in soil and groundwater within affected area signifying that reductive dechlorination wasn't naturally occuring.

Date implemented:
Fall 2002- Excavation Fall 2005- Lactate Injections Fall 2006-Chemical Oxidation Phase I Spring 2007-Chemical Oxidation Phase II

Final remediation design:
The Emergency Excavation removed soil from a 15'x15'x14' area. Approximately 51 tons of contaminated soil and 2,000 gallons of contaminated pit water due to heavy rains that partially filled the open excavation, were disposed of as hazardous waste. Sodium lactate was injected into the subsurface at the site during the closure of temporary monitoring points. A total of 300 pounds of sodium lactate was injected into the subsurface. During the Fall 2006 injection event, Innovative Environmental Technologies (IET) designed and implemented a remedial event that utilized 17 direct-push injections from 16-18 feet bgs and 35-37 feet bgs. The chemical oxidation event utilized 1,850 pounds of sodium persulfate, 1,235 pounds of ZVI, and 455 gallons of 12.5% hydrogen peroxide. The second chemical oxidation event in Spring 2007 involved 17 direct push injections at the same depths as the first oxidation event. The chemical oxidation event utilized 16,380 pounds of sodium persulfate, 766 pounds of ZVI, and 1,524 gallons of 8% hydrogen peroxide.

Results to date:
Analytical GW Data PCE Well 2005(ppb) 2009(ppb) MW-1 390 36 MW-2 340 18 MW-3 440 270 MW-4 18000 3500 MW-5 16000 20000 MW-6 2200 370 A 46% PCE reduction throughout the site has been observed, however PCE concentrations in MW-5 have increased, most likely due to the displacement of a sorbed mass of PCE, which might have occurred during the injections events or the abandonment of MW-4A. MW-4A was improperly installed in 2002 and was abandoned in 2008. During the abandonment of the former borehole area, the driller may have pressurized the area to prepare for closure. Water was noted to have been blown out of two nearby monitoring wells that drastically moved contaminants in the subsurface.

Next Steps:
The next step for the Former Modern Cleaners is the installation of two additional monitoring wells down-gradient of the site to redefine the contamination plume. Additional remedial injections may be needed to treat the new leading edge of the plume pushed west in the direction of the property line.

Cost to Design and Implement:
All technologies: Excavation-$54,129 Groundwater-$140,169

In Situ Zero Valent Iron
 

Why the technology was selected:
An Emergency Excavation was performed at the site in Fall 2002 to remove contaminated soil associated with the 25 drums at the rear of the facility. Lactate injections were chosen first to attempt to assist breakdown in the plume fringes. Chemical Oxidation was selected as a result of groundwater pH ranges and lack of PCE's anaerobic daughter product concentrations in soil and groundwater within affected area signifying that reductive dechlorination wasn't naturally occuring.

Date implemented:
Fall 2002- Excavation Fall 2005- Lactate Injections Fall 2006-Chemical Oxidation Phase I Spring 2007-Chemical Oxidation Phase II

Final remediation design:
The Emergency Excavation removed soil from a 15'x15'x14' area. Approximately 51 tons of contaminated soil and 2,000 gallons of contaminated pit water due to heavy rains that partially filled the open excavation, were disposed of as hazardous waste. Sodium lactate was injected into the subsurface at the site during the closure of temporary monitoring points. A total of 300 pounds of sodium lactate was injected into the subsurface. During the Fall 2006 injection event, Innovative Environmental Technologies (IET) designed and implemented a remedial event that utilized 17 direct-push injections from 16-18 feet bgs and 35-37 feet bgs. The chemical oxidation event utilized 1,850 pounds of sodium persulfate, 1,235 pounds of ZVI, and 455 gallons of 12.5% hydrogen peroxide. The second chemical oxidation event in Spring 2007 involved 17 direct push injections at the same depths as the first oxidation event. The chemical oxidation event utilized 16,380 pounds of sodium persulfate, 766 pounds of ZVI, and 1,524 gallons of 8% hydrogen peroxide.

Results to date:
Analytical GW Data PCE Well 2005(ppb) 2009(ppb) MW-1 390 36 MW-2 340 18 MW-3 440 270 MW-4 18000 3500 MW-5 16000 20000 MW-6 2200 370 A 46% PCE reduction throughout the site has been observed, however PCE concentrations in MW-5 have increased, most likely due to the displacement of a sorbed mass of PCE, which might have occurred during the injections events or the abandonment of MW-4A. MW-4A was improperly installed in 2002 and was abandoned in 2008. During the abandonment of the former borehole area, the driller may have pressurized the area to prepare for closure. Water was noted to have been blown out of two nearby monitoring wells that drastically moved contaminants in the subsurface.

Next Steps:
The next step for the Former Modern Cleaners is the installation of two additional monitoring wells down-gradient of the site to redefine the contamination plume. Additional remedial injections may be needed to treat the new leading edge of the plume pushed west in the direction of the property line.

Cost to Design and Implement:
All technologies: Excavation-$54,129 Groundwater-$140,169

Ex Situ Soil Removal
 

Why the technology was selected:
An Emergency Excavation was performed at the site in Fall 2002 to remove contaminated soil associated with the 25 drums at the rear of the facility. Lactate injections were chosen first to attempt to assist breakdown in the plume fringes. Chemical Oxidation was selected as a result of groundwater pH ranges and lack of PCE's anaerobic daughter product concentrations in soil and groundwater within affected area signifying that reductive dechlorination wasn't naturally occuring.

Date implemented:
Fall 2002- Excavation Fall 2005- Lactate Injections Fall 2006-Chemical Oxidation Phase I Spring 2007-Chemical Oxidation Phase II

Final remediation design:
The Emergency Excavation removed soil from a 15'x15'x14' area. Approximately 51 tons of contaminated soil and 2,000 gallons of contaminated pit water due to heavy rains that partially filled the open excavation, were disposed of as hazardous waste. Sodium lactate was injected into the subsurface at the site during the closure of temporary monitoring points. A total of 300 pounds of sodium lactate was injected into the subsurface. During the Fall 2006 injection event, Innovative Environmental Technologies (IET) designed and implemented a remedial event that utilized 17 direct-push injections from 16-18 feet bgs and 35-37 feet bgs. The chemical oxidation event utilized 1,850 pounds of sodium persulfate, 1,235 pounds of ZVI, and 455 gallons of 12.5% hydrogen peroxide. The second chemical oxidation event in Spring 2007 involved 17 direct push injections at the same depths as the first oxidation event. The chemical oxidation event utilized 16,380 pounds of sodium persulfate, 766 pounds of ZVI, and 1,524 gallons of 8% hydrogen peroxide.

Results to date:
Analytical GW Data PCE Well 2005(ppb) 2009(ppb) MW-1 390 36 MW-2 340 18 MW-3 440 270 MW-4 18000 3500 MW-5 16000 20000 MW-6 2200 370 A 46% PCE reduction throughout the site has been observed, however PCE concentrations in MW-5 have increased, most likely due to the displacement of a sorbed mass of PCE, which might have occurred during the injections events or the abandonment of MW-4A. MW-4A was improperly installed in 2002 and was abandoned in 2008. During the abandonment of the former borehole area, the driller may have pressurized the area to prepare for closure. Water was noted to have been blown out of two nearby monitoring wells that drastically moved contaminants in the subsurface.

Next Steps:
The next step for the Former Modern Cleaners is the installation of two additional monitoring wells down-gradient of the site to redefine the contamination plume. Additional remedial injections may be needed to treat the new leading edge of the plume pushed west in the direction of the property line.

Cost to Design and Implement:
All technologies: Excavation-$54,129 Groundwater-$140,169

Costs

Cost for Assessment:
  $166,568
Cost for Operation and Maintenance:
 
Total Costs for Cleanup:
  $360,929.00

Contacts

Program Manager
TDEC-DOR
Drycleaner Environmental Response Program
401 Church St. Nashville, TN
615-263-3876

Elizabeth Bishop
Innovative Environmental Technologies
6130 Kit Road
Pipersville, PA 18947
www.iet-inc.net
888-721-8283
elizabethbishop@iet-inc.net