Drycleaner Site Profiles

Marvin's Cleaners, Hollywood, Florida

Description
Historical activity that resulted in contamination.

PCE drycleaning operations were conducted at this site from 1967 until 2003. The business was located in a stand alone building located adjacent to a service station. PCE and PCE degradation products detected in groundwater samples collected from monitor wells installed on the service station property lead to an enformcement action in 1990. In 1989, PCE wastes were reportedly discharged to the septic tank that served the facility. The facility is located in a retail commercial/residential setting. The identified contaminant source areas at the site are the septic tank/drainfield, soil beneath the facility floor slab in the vicinity of the drycleaning machine and a separator water treatment unit located behind the facility.

Remediation Status: In groundwater monitoring


Contaminants
Contaminants present and the highest amount detected in both soil and groundwater.


Contaminant Media Concentration (ppb) Nondetect
cis-1,2-Dichloroethene groundwater 4,200 ppb
cis-1,2-Dichloroethene soil 28.9 ppb
1,1-Dichloroethene groundwater 200 ppb
Tetrachloroethene (PCE) groundwater 23,800 ppb
Tetrachloroethene (PCE) soil 3,015 ppb
Trichloroethene (TCE) groundwater 4,000 ppb
Trichloroethene (TCE) soil 8.8 ppb
toluene groundwater 1.79 ppb
toluene soil 2 ppb
trans-1,2-Dichloroethene groundwater 2,319 ppb
Vinyl Chloride groundwater 2,200 ppb
Vinyl Chloride soil 11.2 ppb

Site Hydrology

Deepest Significant Groundwater Contamination:   56ft bgs
Plume Size:   Plume Length: 235ft
Plume Width: 130ft
Plume Thickness: 65ft
Average Depth to Groundwater:   4.5ft

Lithology and Subsurface Geology

 
  fine-grained sand with shells, limestone stringers and lenses of peat
Depth: 0-15ft bgs
15ft thick
Conductivity: 360ft/day
Gradient: 0.0025ft/ft
 
  fine to coarse-grain sand interbedded with limestone
Depth: 15-40ft bgs
25ft thick
 
  limestone interbedded with sand
Depth: 40-50ft bgs
10ft thick
 
  indurated limestone
Depth: 50-80ft bgs
30ft thick

Pathways and DNAPL Presence

checkGroundwater
Sediments
checkSoil
checkPresumptive Evidence of DNAPL

Vapor Intrusion Pathway

Has the potential for vapor intrusion (VI) been evaluated?
  No
Has a vapor mitigation system been installed?
  Yes 
Type of Vapor Mitigation System(s):
  Soil Vapor Extraction

Remediation Scenario

Cleanup Goals:
  Groundwater: PCE = 3 ug/L, TCE = 3 ug/L, cis 1,2-DCE = 70 ug/L, trans 1,2-DCE = 100 ug/L, 1,1-DCE = 7 ug/L, vinyl chloride = 1 ug/L

Soil: PCE = 30 ug/kg (leachability)
Remedy Level:
  Full Scale Remedy

Technologies

In Situ Air Sparging
 

Why the technology was selected:
Air sparging was selected as the groundwater remedy because

Date implemented:
Air sparge/soil vapor extraction system startup: February 13, 2008. October 3, 2008: Startup of modified AS/SVE system.

Final remediation design:
Air sparge system: Two sets of sparge wells were installed at four locations (8 total sparge wells) outside the east and west walls of hte facility. Sparging is through 3.34 foot screens constructed of porous polyethylene. Sparging is in two zones. The gross interval for the shallow zone is 21-31 ft BLS and the deep zone is from 34-41 ft BLS. The shallow sparge wells are powered by 10-HP rotary van compressor and the deep sparge wells are powered by three rotary scroll compressors. Recovered water is treated via a 220-lb. liquid G.A.C. unit and discharged to an onsite infiltration gallery. The system design flow rate is 60 scfm with 10/scfm/well @ 40 psi wellhead pressure.

Results to date:
In February 2008 the SVE system was shut down and a limited scope remedial action plan was submitted to modifly the AS/SVE system based on results of membrane interface probe logging. In August 2003, three additional deep zone sparge wells were installed at locations outside the west wall, the east wall and the south wall of the facility. In October 2003, an additional lateral vapor extraction well was installed outside the east wall of the building. In July and September 2008, two deep zone sparge wells and two lateral vapor extraction wells were installed near the southwestern corner of the building. The AS/SVE system was re-started on October 3, 2008, focusing on the area around the southwestern corner of the building. In 2005, a water table monitor well in the septic drainfield had a PCE spike. This well had been producing groundwater samples with cis 1,2-DCE and vinyl chloride. A wastewater sample collected from the septic tank had the following contaminant concentrations: 31.2 mg/L PCE, 0.935 mg/L TCE, 4.27 mg/L cis 1,2-DCE and 3.57 mg/L vinyl chloride. A second interim source removal was conducted in June 2007. Approximately 2,030 gallons of wastewater/sludge was pumped out of the septic tank and the septic tank/drainfield was replaced. Approximately 51.2 cubic yards of debris and contaminated soil were removed and shipped offsite. The air sparge/SVE system was shut down on October 26, 2009.

Next Steps:
The site is currently in post-active remedial monitoring. The highest contaminant concentrations detected in a groundwater monitoring event conducted on May 2, 2011 were: 7.87 ug/L PCE, 2.84 ug/L TCE, 0.57 ug/l cis 1,2-DCE and 0.830 ug/L vinyl chloride.

Cost to Design and Implement:
$398,300 (all technologies)

Ex Situ Carbon Adsorption
 

Date implemented:
Air sparge/soil vapor extraction system startup: February 13, 2008. October 3, 2008: Startup of modified AS/SVE system.

Final remediation design:
SVE system: Five 2-inch diameter horizontal vapor extraction wells with 5-foot screens were installed at one foot below grade. Two of these wells were installed outside the east wall, two were installed outside the west all and one was installed outside the south wall of the facility. The system is powered by a 15 HP regenerative blower. Off gas is treated via a 2,000 -lb. G.A.C. vessel. Design flow rate is 425 scfm @ 50 inches w.c. Air sparge system: Two sets of sparge wells were installed at four locations (8 total sparge wells) outside the east and west walls of hte facility. Sparging is through 3.34 foot screens constructed of porous polyethylene. Sparging is in two zones. The gross interval for the shallow zone is 21-31 ft BLS and the deep zone is from 34-41 ft BLS. The shallow sparge wells are powered by 10-HP rotary van compressor and the deep sparge wells are powered by three rotary scroll compressors. Recovered water is treated via a 220-lb. liquid G.A.C. unit and discharged to an onsite infiltration gallery. The system design flow rate is 60 scfm with 10/scfm/well @ 40 psi wellhead pressure.

Results to date:
In February 2008 the SVE system was shut down and a limited scope remedial action plan was submitted to modifly the AS/SVE system based on results of membrane interface probe logging. In August 2003, three additional deep zone sparge wells were installed at locations outside the west wall, the east wall and the south wall of the facility. In October 2003, an additional lateral vapor extraction well was installed outside the east wall of the building. In July and September 2008, two deep zone sparge wells and two lateral vapor extraction wells were installed near the southwestern corner of the building. The AS/SVE system was re-started on October 3, 2008, focusing on the area around the southwestern corner of the building. In 2005, a water table monitor well in the septic drainfield had a PCE spike. This well had been producing groundwater samples with cis 1,2-DCE and vinyl chloride. A wastewater sample collected from the septic tank had the following contaminant concentrations: 31.2 mg/L PCE, 0.935 mg/L TCE, 4.27 mg/L cis 1,2-DCE and 3.57 mg/L vinyl chloride. A second interim source removal was conducted in June 2007. Approximately 2,030 gallons of wastewater/sludge was pumped out of the septic tank and the septic tank/drainfield was replaced. Approximately 51.2 cubic yards of debris and contaminated soil were removed and shipped offsite. The air sparge/SVE system was shut down on October 26, 2009.

Next Steps:
The site is currently in post-active remedial monitoring. The highest contaminant concentrations detected in a groundwater monitoring event conducted on May 2, 2011 were: 7.87 ug/L PCE, 2.84 ug/L TCE, 0.57 ug/l cis 1,2-DCE and 0.830 ug/L vinyl chloride.

Cost to Design and Implement:
$398,300 (all technologies)

Ex Situ Soil Removal
 

Why the technology was selected:
The septic tank was pumped out and pressure washed because a sludge sample collected from the septic tank during the assessment activities found contaminants in the following concentrations: 2,360 mg/kg PCE, 0.472 mg/kg TCE, 0.671 mg/kg cis 1,2-DCE & 0.451 mg/kg vinyl chloride. A wastewater sample collected from the septic tank had a PCE concentration of 18.7 mg/L.

Date implemented:
First Interim Source Removal: Septic tank pump out and drainfield removal replacement: April 12-16, 1999. Second interim source removal (septic tank cleanout and replacement of septic tank/drainfield): June 25-29, 2007.

Final remediation design:
First Interim source removal: Septic tank pumped out and steam cleaned. Drain field piping replaced. Approximately 2,030 gallons of wastewater/sludge and 51.2 cubic yards of contaminated soil/debris removed.

Results to date:
In February 2008 the SVE system was shut down and a limited scope remedial action plan was submitted to modifly the AS/SVE system based on results of membrane interface probe logging. In August 2003, three additional deep zone sparge wells were installed at locations outside the west wall, the east wall and the south wall of the facility. In October 2003, an additional lateral vapor extraction well was installed outside the east wall of the building. In July and September 2008, two deep zone sparge wells and two lateral vapor extraction wells were installed near the southwestern corner of the building. The AS/SVE system was re-started on October 3, 2008, focusing on the area around the southwestern corner of the building. In 2005, a water table monitor well in the septic drainfield had a PCE spike. This well had been producing groundwater samples with cis 1,2-DCE and vinyl chloride. A wastewater sample collected from the septic tank had the following contaminant concentrations: 31.2 mg/L PCE, 0.935 mg/L TCE, 4.27 mg/L cis 1,2-DCE and 3.57 mg/L vinyl chloride. A second interim source removal was conducted in June 2007. Approximately 2,030 gallons of wastewater/sludge was pumped out of the septic tank and the septic tank/drainfield was replaced. Approximately 51.2 cubic yards of debris and contaminated soil were removed and shipped offsite. The air sparge/SVE system was shut down on October 26, 2009.

Next Steps:
The site is currently in post-active remedial monitoring. The highest contaminant concentrations detected in a groundwater monitoring event conducted on May 2, 2011 were: 7.87 ug/L PCE, 2.84 ug/L TCE, 0.57 ug/l cis 1,2-DCE and 0.830 ug/L vinyl chloride.

Cost to Design and Implement:
$398,300 (all technologies)

Ex Situ Soil Vapor Extraction
 

Why the technology was selected:
Soil vapor extraction was selected as the primary unsaturated remedial action because it is effective in remediating VOCs in permeable unsaturated soils.

Date implemented:
Air sparge/soil vapor extraction system startup: February 13, 2008. October 3, 2008: Startup of modified AS/SVE system.

Final remediation design:
SVE system: Five 2-inch diameter horizontal vapor extraction wells with 5-foot screens were installed at one foot below grade. Two of these wells were installed outside the east wall, two were installed outside the west all and one was installed outside the south wall of the facility. The system is powered by a 15 HP regenerative blower. Off gas is treated via a 2,000 -lb. G.A.C. vessel. Design flow rate is 425 scfm @ 50 inches w.c.

Results to date:
In February 2008 the SVE system was shut down and a limited scope remedial action plan was submitted to modifly the AS/SVE system based on results of membrane interface probe logging. In August 2003, three additional deep zone sparge wells were installed at locations outside the west wall, the east wall and the south wall of the facility. In October 2003, an additional lateral vapor extraction well was installed outside the east wall of the building. In July and September 2008, two deep zone sparge wells and two lateral vapor extraction wells were installed near the southwestern corner of the building. The AS/SVE system was re-started on October 3, 2008, focusing on the area around the southwestern corner of the building. In 2005, a water table monitor well in the septic drainfield had a PCE spike. This well had been producing groundwater samples with cis 1,2-DCE and vinyl chloride. A wastewater sample collected from the septic tank had the following contaminant concentrations: 31.2 mg/L PCE, 0.935 mg/L TCE, 4.27 mg/L cis 1,2-DCE and 3.57 mg/L vinyl chloride. A second interim source removal was conducted in June 2007. Approximately 2,030 gallons of wastewater/sludge was pumped out of the septic tank and the septic tank/drainfield was replaced. Approximately 51.2 cubic yards of debris and contaminated soil were removed and shipped offsite. The air sparge/SVE system was shut down on October 26, 2009.

Next Steps:
The site is currently in post-active remedial monitoring. The highest contaminant concentrations detected in a groundwater monitoring event conducted on May 2, 2011 were: 7.87 ug/L PCE, 2.84 ug/L TCE, 0.57 ug/l cis 1,2-DCE and 0.830 ug/L vinyl chloride.

Cost to Design and Implement:
$398,300 (all technologies)

Costs

Cost for Assessment:
  $192,900
Cost for Operation and Maintenance:
  Total O&M to date $435,500 Groundwater Monitoring $6,000/year
Total Costs for Cleanup:
 

Lessons Learned

1. Regulatory compliance for a PCE drycleaning operation served by a septic system is problematic. For sites undergoing remediation, regular sampling of the septic tank is recommended to determine if discharges of PCE wastes to the system are occurring. Installation of a water table monitor well in the drain field is also recommended at these sites.

2. An addtional vapor extraction well installed under the facility floor slab would have enhanced the AS/SVE system. Access to the building was limited.

3. The site stratigraphy, interbedded sand and limestone in the sparge zone hampered the effectivness of the system.

4. MIP logging, conducted in February 2006 was useful in modifying the AS/SVE system.

Contacts

Walsta Jean-Baptiste
2600 Blair Stone Road, MS4520
Tallahassee FL 32399
(850)245-8973
walsta.jeanbaptiste@dep.state.fl.us

Edward Vehling
Shaw Environmental, Inc.
725 US Highway 301 South
Tampa FL 33619-4349
Phone: 9813) 612-3623
E-mail: Edward.Vehling@shawgrp.com

Site Specific References

Site Assessment Report: 1997
Remedial Action Plan: 1999
Construction Completion Report: 2001
Remedial Action Plan (revised system); 2008.