Drycleaner Site Profiles

Pablo Plaza Cleaners, Jacksonville Beach, Florida

Description
Historical activity that resulted in contamination.

This is an acitve PCE drycleaning facility that has been in operation since 1986. The facility is located in a shopping center in a mixed retail commercial/residential setting. The facility is located approximately 200 feet west of a small lake is and is approximately 1,500 feet west of the Atlantic Ocean. The identified contaminant source areas at the site are the soils under the floor slab in the vicinity of the drycleaning machine, the area outside the service door and the storm drain. A sediment collected from the storm drain had the following contaminant concentrations: 110 ug/kg PCE, 20 ug/kg TCE, 12 ug/kg cis 1,2-DCE and 470 ug/kg toluene

Remediation Status: In groundwater monitoring


Contaminants
Contaminants present and the highest amount detected in both soil and groundwater.


Contaminant Media Concentration (ppb) Nondetect
cis-1,2-Dichloroethene groundwater
cis-1,2-Dichloroethene soil
1,1-Dichloroethene groundwater
Tetrachloroethene (PCE) groundwater
Tetrachloroethene (PCE) soil
Trichloroethene (TCE) groundwater
Trichloroethene (TCE) soil
toluene soil
trans-1,2-Dichloroethene groundwater
Vinyl Chloride groundwater

Site Hydrology

Deepest Significant Groundwater Contamination:   45ft bgs
Plume Size:   Plume Length: 560ft
Plume Width: 105ft
Plume Thickness: 40ft
Average Depth to Groundwater:   4ft

Lithology and Subsurface Geology

 
  fine-grained sand with organic material
Depth: 0-4ft bgs
4ft thick
Gradient: 0.0013ft/ft
 
  peat w/ some sand
Depth: 4-8ft bgs
4ft thick
 
  silty fine to medium-grained sand with organics
Depth: 8-21ft bgs
13ft thick
 
  very fine to fine-grained sand with shells
Depth: 21-32ft bgs
11ft thick
 
  silty very fine to fine-grained sand with shells and minor clay
Depth: 32-36ft bgs
4ft thick
 
  shell hash with some fine-grained sand
Depth: 36-44ft bgs
8ft thick
 
  silty fine-grained sand with clay
Depth: 44-46ft bgs
2ft thick
 
  clayey, silty fine-grained sand with shells
Depth: 46-48ft bgs
2ft thick
 
  silty fine to medium-grained sand with shells
Depth: 48-52ft bgs
4ft thick

Pathways and DNAPL Presence

checkGroundwater
checkSediments
checkSoil
DNAPL Present

Vapor Intrusion Pathway

Has the potential for vapor intrusion (VI) been evaluated?
  No
Has a vapor mitigation system been installed?
  Yes 
Type of Vapor Mitigation System(s):
  Soil Vapor Extraction

Remediation Scenario

Cleanup Goals:
  Soil: PCE = 30 ug/kg (leachability0
Groundwater: PCE = 3 ug/l, TCE = 3 ug/l, cis 1,2-DCE = 70 ug/l trans 1,2-DCE = 100 ug/l, 1,1-DCE = 7 ug/l, vinyl chloride = 1 ug/l.
Remedy Level:
  Full Scale Remedy

Technologies

In Situ Biostimulation
 

Why the technology was selected:
Biostimulation, using ORC was selected because the chief contaminants in groundwater were the PCE degradation products cis 1,2-DCE and vinyl chloride. ORC was used to facilitate aerobic degradation of cis 1,2-DCE and vinyl chloride in groundwater. ORC is composed of magnesium peroxide. During assessment activities PCE was not detected in any of the groundwater samples collected via direct push or from monitor wells. Only low concentrations of TCE were detected in groundwater.

Date implemented:
Biostimulation using ORC (three injection events): May 18-20, 2004, September 13-16, 2005 and July 17-19, 2007.

Final remediation design:
Biostimulation: 1st injection event: Approximately 20 lbs. of ORC was injected in each of 47 direct push injection points located on 8 foot spacing. The injection interval was 20-30 ft BLS. A total of 930 lbs. of ORC was injected. In the second injection event, a total of 940 lbs. of ORC was injected into 47 direct push injeciton points installed on 12 foot spacing. Injection interval was 20-30 ft BLS. 3rd injection event: Approximately 24 lbs. of ORC was injected into each of 47 direct push injection points.

Results to date:
The SVE system was shut down on January 11, 2006, after 21 months of operation. The latest groundwater monitoring event found two wells with contaminant concentrations exceeding MCLs: 74 ug/l cis 1,2-DCE and 61 ug/l vinyl chloride in one well and 2.5 ug/l vinyl chloride in the other well.

Next Steps:
Continue monitored natural attenuation.

Cost to Design and Implement:
$196,900 (all technologies)

In Situ Soil Vapor Extraction
 

Why the technology was selected:
Soil vapor extraction was chosen because it is an effective technology for remediating VOC contamination in peremable unsaturated soils.

Date implemented:
Soil Vapor Extraction: April 15, 2004.

Final remediation design:
Soil Vapor Extraction: The system consists of two vapor extraction wells. A vertical well, screened 1.5-4.5 ft BLS was installed beneath the facility floor slab and a horizontal well (20 feet in length) was installed 2 feet beneath the facility floor slab. The system is powered by a 3 HP regenerative blower. Off gas is treated via a 200-lb. G.A.C. vessel. The vertical vapor extraction well was later converted to an air inlet well.

Results to date:
The SVE system was shut down on January 11, 2006, after 21 months of operation. The latest groundwater monitoring event found two wells with contaminant concentrations exceeding MCLs: 74 ug/l cis 1,2-DCE and 61 ug/l vinyl chloride in one well and 2.5 ug/l vinyl chloride in the other well.

Next Steps:
Continue monitored natural attenuation.

Cost to Design and Implement:
$196,900 (all technologies)

Ex Situ Carbon Adsorption
 

Date implemented:
Soil Vapor Extraction: April 15, 2004.

Final remediation design:
Soil Vapor Extraction: The system consists of two vapor extraction wells. A vertical well, screened 1.5-4.5 ft BLS was installed beneath the facility floor slab and a horizontal well (20 feet in length) was installed 2 feet beneath the facility floor slab. The system is powered by a 3 HP regenerative blower. Off gas is treated via a 200-lb. G.A.C. vessel. The vertical vapor extraction well was later converted to an air inlet well.

Results to date:
The SVE system was shut down on January 11, 2006, after 21 months of operation. The latest groundwater monitoring event found two wells with contaminant concentrations exceeding MCLs: 74 ug/l cis 1,2-DCE and 61 ug/l vinyl chloride in one well and 2.5 ug/l vinyl chloride in the other well.

Next Steps:
Continue monitored natural attenuation.

Cost to Design and Implement:
$196,900 (all technologies)

Ex Situ Soil Removal
 

Why the technology was selected:
An interim source removal was chosen because contaminated sediment was found in the storm drain adjacent to the facility and the storm drain was accessible.

Date implemented:
Interim Source Removal: June 4, 2002

Final remediation design:
Interim Source Removal: Approximately 110 gallons of sediment/water were removed from the storm drain located adjacent to the facility via a vacuum truck.

Results to date:
The SVE system was shut down on January 11, 2006, after 21 months of operation. The latest groundwater monitoring event found two wells with contaminant concentrations exceeding MCLs: 74 ug/l cis 1,2-DCE and 61 ug/l vinyl chloride in one well and 2.5 ug/l vinyl chloride in the other well.

Next Steps:
Continue monitored natural attenuation.

Cost to Design and Implement:
$196,900 (all technologies)

Costs

Cost for Assessment:
  $120,900
Cost for Operation and Maintenance:
  O&M + Monitoring to date: $243,300 Monitoring per year; $8,000
Total Costs for Cleanup:
 

Lessons Learned

1. Conditions in groundwater are strongly anaerobic. The ORC injection area was hydraulically down gradient of the identified contaminant source areas. Attempting to convert a large volume of groundwater under anaerobic conditions to aerobic conditions is not feasible and cannot be sustained. In hindsight, a limited injection in the contaminant source areas would have been a better alternative.

2. The case can be made that the interim source removal and operation of the SVE system have done more to reduce contaminant concentrations at the site than the ORC injections.

3. PCE was first detected in groundwater at the site in source area monitor wells in 2007, after the interim source removal and the SVE system was shut down. PCE concentrations as high as 94 ug/l were detected, but no PCE has been detected in groundater since 2009. The source of the PCE was likely a new release. New releases at drycleaning sites are not uncommon.

Contacts

Aaron Cohen, Project Manager
Bureau of Waste Cleanup (MS4520)
Florida Department of Environmental Protection
2600 Blair Stone Road
Tallahassee, Florida 32399-2400
Phone: (850) 245-8962
E-Mail: Aaron.Cohen@dep.state.fl.us

Eric Meyers, P.E.
Ecology & Environment, Inc.
1974 Commonwealth Lane
Tallahassee, Florida 32303

Phone: (850) 574-1400
E-mail: Emyers@ene.com

Site Specific References

Site Assessment Report: 2001

Remedial Action Plan: 2003

SVE Construction Completion Report: 2004-2006

Groundwater monitoring reports: 2002-present.