Drycleaner Site Profiles

J&D Cleaners, Milton, Florida

Description
Historical activity that resulted in contamination.

This is an active PCE drycleaning facility that has been in operation since 1984. The facility is located in a free-standing builidng in a mixed retailcommercial/residential setting. The contamiation source area is the soil beneath the facility floor slab in the vicinity of the drycleaning machine.

Remediation Status: In active remediation


Contaminants
Contaminants present and the highest amount detected in both soil and groundwater.


Contaminant Media Concentration (ppb) Nondetect
cis-1,2-Dichloroethene groundwater 4,180 ppb
cis-1,2-Dichloroethene soil 1,400 ppb
1,1-Dichloroethene groundwater 6 ppb
Tetrachloroethene (PCE) groundwater 320 ppb
Tetrachloroethene (PCE) soil 1,500 ppb
Trichloroethene (TCE) groundwater 888 ppb
Trichloroethene (TCE) soil 876 ppb
toluene soil 6 ppb
trans-1,2-Dichloroethene groundwater 183 ppb
trans-1,2-Dichloroethene soil 19 ppb
Vinyl Chloride groundwater 470 ppb
Vinyl Chloride soil 260 ppb

Site Hydrology

Deepest Significant Groundwater Contamination:   12ft bgs
Plume Size:   Plume Length: 240ft
Plume Width: 145ft
Plume Thickness: 10ft
Average Depth to Groundwater:   1.75ft

Lithology and Subsurface Geology

 
  sandy silt with organic matter
Depth: 0-2ft bgs
2ft thick
Conductivity: 2.1ft/day
Gradient: 0.0015ft/ft
 
  silty, organic-rich clay
Depth: 2-4ft bgs
2ft thick
 
  medium to coarse-grained sand with organics
Depth: 4-12ft bgs
8ft thick
 
  hard silty, to sandy clay
Depth: 12-42ft bgs
30ft thick

Pathways and DNAPL Presence

checkGroundwater
Sediments
checkSoil
DNAPL Present

Vapor Intrusion Pathway

Has the potential for vapor intrusion (VI) been evaluated?
  No
Has a vapor mitigation system been installed?
  Yes 
Type of Vapor Mitigation System(s):
  Soil Vapor Extraction

Remediation Scenario

Cleanup Goals:
  Groundwater: PCE = 3.0 ug/L, TCE = 3.0 ug/L, cis 1,2-DCE = 70 ug/L, trans 1,2-DCE = 100 ug/l; 1,1-DCE = 7.0 ug/L, vinyl chloride = 1.0 ug.L

Soil: PCE = 30 ug/kg; TCE = 30 ug/Kg; 1,2-DCE = 400 ug/Kg; trans 1,2-DCE = 700 ug/Kg; vinyl chloride = 7 ug/Kg
Remedy Level:
  Full Scale Remedy

Technologies

In Situ Bioremediation
 

Why the technology was selected:
The In-Situ Oxygen Curtain - ISOC(TM) technology was selected to stimulate aerobic biodegradation of the predominant contaminants in groundwater (cis 1,2-DCE and vinyl chloride). The ISOC(TM) technology utilizes an in-well diffuser that contains a proprietary structured polymer (a hydrophobic micro-porous hollow fiber) that facilitates increased mass transfer of a gas (oxygen in this case) into the contaminated groundwater. PCE and TCE are found only in the contaminant source area. The contaminants present in the downgradient portion of the plume are cis 1,2-DCE and vinyl chloride which can degrade under aerobic conditions.

Date implemented:
In-Situ Oxygen Curtain: August 18, 2004

Final remediation design:
In-Situ Oxygen Curtain System: Eight 2-inch diameter wells screened 2-13 ft BLS were installed in a line perpendicular to groundwater flow in the downgradient portion of the plume. The wells were spaced 15 feet apart. An oxygen infusion unit - ISOC(TM)unit - was installed in each well. Oxygen supplied by a 300 cubic foot capicity cylinder. Design oxygen flow rate: 15 cc/minute.

Other technologies used:
In-Situ Oxygen Curtain - ISOC(TM)

Results to date:
In 21 months of operation, no discernable decline in contaminant concentrations was observed in the groundwater samples collected from monitor wells installed downgradient of the ISOC wells. The oxygen tank was found depleted during fourteen of ht eeighteen monthly scheduled operation and maintenance visits to the site. The polyurethane tubing that conveyed the oxygen from teh tank tot he ISOC control panel and to the ISOC units had to be replaced several times due to deterioration. The ISOC system was shut down in June of 2006.

Next Steps:
Groundwater monitoring event conducted in June of 2008 found 2,100 ug/l Cis 1,2-DCE & 330 ug/l vinyl chloride. A modification to the remedial action plan was approved in May of 2008. Biostimulation using ethyl lactate and ChitoREM (a chitin complex) has been proposed and accepted as a groundwater remedy.

Cost to Design and Implement:
All technologies: Design: $38,500 Construction: $202,800

In Situ Multi Phase Extraction
 

Why the technology was selected:
The multi-phase extraction/SVE systems were installed in the contaminant source area. Multi-phase (Dual-Phase Extraction) was selected to dewater the shallow portion of the aquifer in the contaminant source area to facilitate VOC removal via soil vapor extraction.

Date implemented:
MPE/SVE System: September 7, 2004

Final remediation design:
Dual-Phase Extraction System: Two 4-inch diameter recovery wells (screened 2-13.5 ft BLS) installed adjacent to the drycleaning facility. Extraction via Hammerhead pneumatic pumps powered by Champion air compressor (10.9 acfm @ 125 psi. Water treatment via two -200lb. liquid G.A.C. units. Treated water discharged to sanitary sewer. Design recovery rate: 0.75 gpm/well.

Results to date:
The dual-phase recovery system failed to draw the water table down sufficiently for the soil vapor extraction system to operate effectively. Total VOH concentraiton sin groundwater samples collected from the two recovery wells have not shown any reductions. The dual-phase extraction system and SVE system were shut down on June 6, of 2006. The system recovered an estiamted 298,349 gallons of water and 1.4 pounds of VOCs. The SVE system recovered an estimated 2 pounds of VOCs.

Next Steps:
Groundwater monitoring event conducted in June of 2008 found 2,100 ug/l Cis 1,2-DCE & 330 ug/l vinyl chloride. A modification to the remedial action plan was approved in May of 2008. Biostimulation using ethyl lactate and ChitoREM (a chitin complex) has been proposed and accepted as a groundwater remedy.

Cost to Design and Implement:
All technologies: Design: $38,500 Construction: $202,800

In Situ Soil Vapor Extraction
 

Why the technology was selected:
The multi-phase extraction/SVE systems were installed in the contaminant source area. Multi-phase (Dual-Phase Extraction) was selected to dewater the shallow portion of the aquifer in the contaminant source area to facilitate VOC removal via soil vapor extraction.

Date implemented:
MPE/SVE System: September 7, 2004

Final remediation design:
SVE System: Three 4-inch diameter vapor extraction wells (screened 14 ft BLS) installed beneath the facility floor slab. 5 HP Rotron regenerative blower. Off gas treated via 200 lb. G.A.C. unit.

Results to date:
The dual-phase recovery system failed to draw the water table down sufficiently for the soil vapor extraction system to operate effectively. Total VOH concentraiton sin groundwater samples collected from the two recovery wells have not shown any reductions. The dual-phase extraction system and SVE system were shut down on June 6, of 2006. The system recovered an estiamted 298,349 gallons of water and 1.4 pounds of VOCs. The SVE system recovered an estimated 2 pounds of VOCs.

Next Steps:
Groundwater monitoring event conducted in June of 2008 found 2,100 ug/l Cis 1,2-DCE & 330 ug/l vinyl chloride. A modification to the remedial action plan was approved in May of 2008. Biostimulation using ethyl lactate and ChitoREM (a chitin complex) has been proposed and accepted as a groundwater remedy.

Cost to Design and Implement:
All technologies: Design: $38,500 Construction: $202,800

Ex Situ Carbon Adsorption
 

Date implemented:
MPE/SVE System: September 7, 2004

Final remediation design:
SVE System: Three 4-inch diameter vapor extraction wells (screened 14 ft BLS) installed beneath the facility floor slab. 5 HP Rotron regenerative blower. Off gas treated via 200 lb. G.A.C. unit. Dual-Phase Extraction System: Two 4-inch diameter recovery wells (screened 2-13.5 ft BLS) installed adjacent to the drycleaning facility. Extraction via Hammerhead pneumatic pumps powered by Champion air compressor (10.9 acfm @ 125 psi. Water treatment via two -200lb. liquid G.A.C. units. Treated water discharged to sanitary sewer. Design recovery rate: 0.75 gpm/well.

Results to date:
The dual-phase recovery system failed to draw the water table down sufficiently for the soil vapor extraction system to operate effectively. Total VOH concentraiton sin groundwater samples collected from the two recovery wells have not shown any reductions. The dual-phase extraction system and SVE system were shut down on June 6, of 2006. The system recovered an estiamted 298,349 gallons of water and 1.4 pounds of VOCs. The SVE system recovered an estimated 2 pounds of VOCs.

Next Steps:
Groundwater monitoring event conducted in June of 2008 found 2,100 ug/l Cis 1,2-DCE & 330 ug/l vinyl chloride. A modification to the remedial action plan was approved in May of 2008. Biostimulation using ethyl lactate and ChitoREM (a chitin complex) has been proposed and accepted as a groundwater remedy.

Cost to Design and Implement:
All technologies: Design: $38,500 Construction: $202,800

Costs

Cost for Assessment:
  $83,000
Cost for Operation and Maintenance:
  Total O&M expenses: $129,000
Total Costs for Cleanup:
 

Lessons Learned

1. The remedial design at a site may dictate that additional monitor wells need to be installed. At this site, addtional monitor wells had to be installed at postions closer to the ISOC units to effectively monitor the ISOC system performance.

2. With the ISOC system there were problems with premature depletion of oxygen tanks. This was due in part to leaks in the polyurethane tubing and there may have been leaks associated with other system fittings and couplings. Another contributor to the premature oxygen depletion may have been with the adjustment of the oxygen flow rates at the ISOC control panel.

3. On at least one occasion, oxygen depletion and the associated pressure drop resulted in groundwater intruding into the ISOC unit. When this occurs, the ISOC diffusion unit must be pulled and shipped to the factory to be dried out.

4. Some of the oxygen emitted from the ISOC units may have been depleted near the wellbore through oxidation of organic content of the sediments.

Contacts

Chris Pellegrino, Project Manager
Bureau of Waste Cleanup (MS4520)
Florida Department of Environmental Protection
2600 Blair Stone Road
Tallahassee, Florida 32399-2400
Phone: (850) 245-8972
E-mail: Chris Pellegrino@dep.state.fl.us

Brian Urban, PE
WRS Infrastructure & Environment, Inc.
1650 Summit Lake Drive, Suite 202
Tallahassee, Florida 32317
Phone: (850) 531-9860
burban@wrsie.com

Site Specific References

Site Assessment Report - Mwy 2001
Remedial Action Plan - December 2003
Construction Completion Report - October 2004
Operation & Maintenance Reports: 2004 - 2006
Modified Remedial Action Plan: August 2007