Drycleaner Site Profiles

Abe's Main Street Cleaners, Portland, Oregon

Description
Historical activity that resulted in contamination.

Abe's Main Street Cleaners, an active facility located in a commercial area, has operated since the 1940s. The drycleaner used Stoddard solvent until the 1980s, and then converted to perchloroethylene (PCE). Complaints about dumping triggered an Oregon Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) site inspection in 1992. The investigation revealed that the operator discharged wastewater from the dryer through a pipe into the subfloor of the building, and indicated elevated levels of PCE in the groundwater. The DEQ handles inspection and remediation for this site as part of its Orphan Site Account program.

Remediation Status: In groundwater monitoring


Contaminants
Contaminants present and the highest amount detected in both soil and groundwater.


Contaminant Media Concentration (ppb) Nondetect
cis-1,2-Dichloroethene groundwater 3,000 ppb
Tetrachloroethene (PCE) groundwater 17,000 ppb
Tetrachloroethene (PCE) soil 41,000 ppb
Trichloroethene (TCE) groundwater 530 ppb
trans-1,2-Dichloroethene groundwater 390 ppb
Vinyl Chloride groundwater 33 ppb

Site Hydrology

Deepest Significant Groundwater Contamination:   30ft bgs
Plume Size:   Plume Length: 300ft
Plume Width: 100ft
Plume Thickness: 30ft
Average Depth to Groundwater:   17.5ft

Lithology and Subsurface Geology

 
  clayey silt and fine sand
Depth: 0-15ft bgs
15ft thick
Conductivity: 22ft/day
Gradient: 0.003ft/ft
 
  sandy gravel
Depth: 15-45ft bgs
30ft thick
Conductivity: 491ft/day
 
  basalt
Depth: 45ft bgs

Pathways and DNAPL Presence

checkGroundwater
Sediments
checkSoil
checkDNAPL Present

Remediation Scenario

Cleanup Goals:
  Interim Remedial Action Measures (IRAM) objectives included the containment and minimization of further migration of volatile organic compound contamination in soil and groundwater. DEQ installed and operated a Soil Vapor Extraction (SVE) from Feb. 1998 to Oct 1999 to remove soil contamination, in addition to a groundwater extraction system.

Following completion of the risk assessment DEQ identified potential engineering controls to reduce unacceptable risk during future site development. DEQ's risk-based concentrations (RBCs), or appropriately determined site-specific RBCs are the remedial objective for site. Primary pathways of concern are the indoor air pathway and direct contact by excavation workers.
Remedy Level:
  Interim Action

Technologies

In Situ Soil Vapor Extraction
 

Why the technology was selected:
DEQ identified the SVE system as a feasible method because of its potential to reduce and control the migration of chlorinated solvents in the unsaturated soil zone beneath the building and easy implementability. (IRAMs are just used to get something "done" at a site while it is being fully investigated/evaluated.)

Date implemented:
1998

Final remediation design:
The SVE system included 4 SVE wells, a vacuum blower and associated piping. A vapor extraction rate of 100 cubic feet per minute (ft3/min) was applied to the four SVE wells beginning in February 1998.

Results to date:
PCE concentrations in the recovered soil gas was as high as 2,700 ppm during initial operation, but quickly declined to approximately 70 ppm after several months of operation. The SVE system operated until October 1999 when it was decommissioned. Volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in the soil gas had declined to levels less than 5 ppm. During its operation, the SVE system removed approximately 640 pounds of VOCs from the soil above the water table in the vicinity of the outbuilding and from beneath the dry cleaner building. The SVE system was decommissioned in 2003.

Next Steps:
DEQ issued No Further Action remedial decision in December 2002. Monitoring and remediation systems removed in February 2003. DEQ is currently in negotiations with a prospective purchaser who desires to develop the proeprty for mixed use, including residential housing. Additional site investigation has been conducted to assess the need for engineering or other controls during site development.

Cost to Design and Implement:
$1,059,000(SVE and Groundwater extraction)

Ex Situ Pump and Treat
 

Why the technology was selected:
DEQ chose the groundwater extraction system because it provided a means to conduct mass removal and prevent the groundwater contamination from migrating toward a local water bodies. Evaluation of "innovative" technologies was done at the time, but not enough work had been done to recommend use at this site.

Date implemented:
1998

Final remediation design:
The groundwater IRM included two extraction wells (AMW-11 and AMW-16), an air stripper groundwater treatment system (GTS) with activated carbon secondary treatment, and associated piping and electrical lines to each of the extraction wells to the GTS. Treated groundwater was discharged to surface water via an on-site storm drain pursuant to discharge requirements speci-fied by DEQ. The system was brought on-line in February 1998. Groundwater extraction rates ranged from 10 to 25 gpm from each well.

Results to date:
In July 2001, DEQ chose to discontinue operation of the groundwater IRAM based on continued problems with scaling on the GTS and the findings of the beneficial water use evaluation, which indicated groundwater use for drinking water within the area was unlikely to occur in the future. Residual HVOC concentrations in groundwater at that time were below DEQ risk-based concentrations for vapor intrusion exposure pathway (most conservative cleanup goal besides drinking water). A quarterly groundwater monitoring program was implemented following system shut down to assess HVOC concentrations over time and further evaluate natural attenuation of HVOCs.

Next Steps:
DEQ issued No Further Action remedial decision in December 2002. Monitoring and remediation systems removed in February 2003. DEQ is currently in negotiations with a prospective purchaser who desires to develop the proeprty for mixed use, including residential housing. Additional site investigation has been conducted to assess the need for engineering or other controls during site development.

Cost to Design and Implement:
$1,059,000(SVE and Groundwater extraction)

Costs

Cost for Assessment:
  $221,000
Cost for Operation and Maintenance:
  $282,000
Total Costs for Cleanup:
 

Lessons Learned

1. Significant cost savings realized with NPDES permit discharge via Storm Sewer rather than via POTW and Sanitary.
2. UV screening of soil and groundwater samples proved an adequate field screening technique in the source area.
3. Limited geochemical sampling failed to indicate significant iron fouling by iron bacteria in the source area. Significant O & M costs were necessary to maintain the groundwater treatment system.
4. Coincident petroleum contamination from adjacent petroleum sites have resulted in a fairly mature degradation plume off-site and downgradient of the property that may limit any additional off-site necessary (e.g. monitored natural attenuation).

Contacts

Formerly: Bruce Gilles, Project Manager
OR DEQ, Site Response
Northwest Region
2020 SW Fourth Avenue, Suite 400
Portland, OR 97201-4987
800-452-4011
gilles.bruce.a@deq.state.or.us

Current-Mark Pugh
OR DEQ, Site Response
Northwest Region
2020 SW Fourth Avenue, Suite 400
Portland, OR 97201-4987
503 229-5587
Pugh.Mark@deq.state.or.us


Contractors:
Ecology and Environment, Inc.
333 SW Fifth Avenue
Portland, OR 97204
503-248-5600
Mark Ochnsner, Project Manager
MOchsner@ene.com

Site Specific References

000749.OA03OQ01.00.0407.02




DEQ

FinalDraft
Focused Feasibility StudyDEQ Staff Report
SurgichromeAbe’s Dry Cleaners, Inc., Site
ClackamasMilwaukie, Oregon


DEQ Staff Report, Abe’s Cleaners Facility,Milwaukie, Oregon
ECSI Site ID No. 1258
October 10, 2002