Drycleaner Site Profiles

Johannsen Cleaners, Lebanon, Oregon

Description
Historical activity that resulted in contamination.

Johannsen Cleaners began operations in 1955 and operated until 2002. It is currently a drop store (no on-site cleaning). In 1990, perchloroethylene (PCE) contamination was discovered in an irrigation well in the area. Additional sampling over the next few years found PCE contamination in a number of private and domestic wells. From 1993-1995 work at the site indicated soil and groundwater contaminated with PCE. The site is located in an business district with some limited urban residential nearby. One identified source area was near the sewer line, where shallow soils were identified (and later removed).

Contaminants
Contaminants present and the highest amount detected in both soil and groundwater.


Contaminant Media Concentration (ppb) Nondetect
cis-1,2-Dichloroethene groundwater 41,000 ppb
Tetrachloroethene (PCE) groundwater 3,400,000 ppb
Trichloroethene (TCE) groundwater 42,000 ppb
Vinyl Chloride groundwater 2.7 ppb

Site Hydrology

Deepest Significant Groundwater Contamination:   120ft bgs
Plume Size:  
Average Depth to Groundwater:   12.5ft

Lithology and Subsurface Geology

Upper surficial aquifer
  Alluvium containing gravel and sand with varying amounts of silt and clay. Silty sand
Depth: 0-20ft bgs
20ft thick
Gradient: 0.001ft/ft

Pathways and DNAPL Presence

checkGroundwater
Sediments
checkSoil
checkDNAPL Present

Remediation Scenario

Cleanup Goals:
 

Technologies

In Situ Air Sparging
 

Date implemented:
Pump and Treat & SVE (2001-2006)

Final remediation design:
Initial groundwater and SVE system consisted of two horizontal headers with vertical extraction wells and several shallow SVE wells near and beneath the building. System removes soil vapor and groundwater from beneath the building slab. Groundwater treated via air stripping with direct discharge to the atmosphere.

Results to date:
Groundwater concentrations below risk based concentrations for vapor intrusion. Most well concentrations < MCLs. One monitoring well concentration remains at 45 ug/L

Next Steps:
Groundwater Monitoring. Watch for rebound.

In Situ Soil Removal
 

Date implemented:
Soil Removal 199

Results to date:
Groundwater concentrations below risk based concentrations for vapor intrusion. Most well concentrations < MCLs. One monitoring well concentration remains at 45 ug/L

Next Steps:
Groundwater Monitoring. Watch for rebound.

In Situ Bioremediation
 

Why the technology was selected:
Pump and treat and SVE were initially installed after the soil removal. These were discontinued after concentrations leveled off (above cleanup target levels). Bioremediation was later implemented using most of the existing infrastructure to recirculate amended water (dextrose and emulsified vegetable oil) through the zone of contamination.

Date implemented:
Bioremediation (2007-2008)

Final remediation design:
Bioremediation consisted of a recirculating pump and re-inject system using dextrose and emulsified vegetable oil as electron donors. P&T and SVE wells were used for injection and extraction. Shallow SVE wells had a soil flushing effect.

Results to date:
Groundwater concentrations below risk based concentrations for vapor intrusion. Most well concentrations < MCLs. One monitoring well concentration remains at 45 ug/L

Next Steps:
Groundwater Monitoring. Watch for rebound.

Cost to Design and Implement:
$225,000 (P&T) $71,000 (Bio) $184,000 (P&T and Bio)

In Situ Multi Phase Extraction
 

Why the technology was selected:
Pump and treat and SVE were initially installed after the soil removal. These were discontinued after concentrations leveled off (above cleanup target levels). Bioremediation was later implemented using most of the existing infrastructure to recirculate amended water (dextrose and emulsified vegetable oil) through the zone of contamination.

Date implemented:
Pump and Treat & SVE (2001-2006)

Final remediation design:
Initial groundwater and SVE system consisted of two horizontal headers with vertical extraction wells and several shallow SVE wells near and beneath the building. System removes soil vapor and groundwater from beneath the building slab. Groundwater treated via air stripping with direct discharge to the atmosphere.

Results to date:
Groundwater concentrations below risk based concentrations for vapor intrusion. Most well concentrations < MCLs. One monitoring well concentration remains at 45 ug/L

Next Steps:
Groundwater Monitoring. Watch for rebound.

Cost to Design and Implement:
$225,000 (P&T) $71,000 (Bio) $184,000 (P&T and Bio)

Ex Situ Air Stripping
 

Why the technology was selected:
Pump and treat and SVE were initially installed after the soil removal. These were discontinued after concentrations leveled off (above cleanup target levels).

Date implemented:
Pump and Treat & SVE (2001-2006)

Final remediation design:
Initial groundwater and SVE system consisted of two horizontal headers with vertical extraction wells and several shallow SVE wells near and beneath the building. System removes soil vapor and groundwater from beneath the building slab. Groundwater treated via air stripping with direct discharge to the atmosphere.

Results to date:
Groundwater concentrations below risk based concentrations for vapor intrusion. Most well concentrations < MCLs. One monitoring well concentration remains at 45 ug/L

Next Steps:
Groundwater Monitoring. Watch for rebound.

Cost to Design and Implement:
$225,000 (P&T) $71,000 (Bio) $184,000 (P&T and Bio)

Ex Situ Pump and Treat
 

Why the technology was selected:
Pump and treat and SVE were initially installed after the soil removal. These were discontinued after concentrations leveled off (above cleanup target levels).

Date implemented:
Pump and Treat & SVE (2001-2006)

Final remediation design:
Initial groundwater and SVE system consisted of two horizontal headers with vertical extraction wells and several shallow SVE wells near and beneath the building. System removes soil vapor and groundwater from beneath the building slab. Groundwater treated via air stripping with direct discharge to the atmosphere.

Results to date:
Groundwater concentrations below risk based concentrations for vapor intrusion. Most well concentrations < MCLs. One monitoring well concentration remains at 45 ug/L

Next Steps:
Groundwater Monitoring. Watch for rebound.

Cost to Design and Implement:
$225,000 (P&T) $71,000 (Bio) $184,000 (P&T and Bio)

Ex Situ In Situ Flushing
 

Why the technology was selected:
Pump and treat and SVE were initially installed after the soil removal. These were discontinued after concentrations leveled off (above cleanup target levels). Bioremediation was later implemented using most of the existing infrastructure to recirculate amended water (dextrose and emulsified vegetable oil) through the zone of contamination.

Date implemented:
Bioremediation (2007-2008)

Final remediation design:
Bioremediation consisted of a recirculating pump and re-inject system using dextrose and emulsified vegetable oil as electron donors. P&T and SVE wells were used for injection and extraction. Shallow SVE wells had a soil flushing effect.

Results to date:
Groundwater concentrations below risk based concentrations for vapor intrusion. Most well concentrations < MCLs. One monitoring well concentration remains at 45 ug/L

Next Steps:
Groundwater Monitoring. Watch for rebound.

Cost to Design and Implement:
$225,000 (P&T) $71,000 (Bio) $184,000 (P&T and Bio)

Costs

Cost for Assessment:
  $126,000
Cost for Operation and Maintenance:
  $153,000 during P&T phase Currently $0
Total Costs for Cleanup:
  $480,000

Lessons Learned

1. Sewer discharge pipe ruptured. Need for upgrade/construction not realized.

2. Piping runs beneath flooring provided ideal access points to measure vacuum effect of treatment system.

3. 20/20 hindsight. Based on other sites, money may have been better spent on alternative cleanup/remediation (e.g HRC, bioremediation) sooner, rather than active treatment.

4. Re-use of pump and treat and SVE infrastructure was very helpful and cost saving for the bioremediation work.

Contacts

Don Hanson
Oregon DEQ
165 E. 7th Avenue, Suite 100
Eugene, OR 97401
hanson.don@deq.state.or.us