Drycleaner Site Profiles

Koretizing Cleaners, Jacksonville, Florida

Description
Historical activity that resulted in contamination.

This is an active PCE drycleaning facility that began operations prior to 1981. The facility is served by a septic system and an underground storage tank (UST) containing fuel oil is located behind the facility. The facility is located in a mixed commercial/ residential setting. The nearest public water supply well is located approximately 2,000 ft northeast of the facility. The identified contaminant source areas at the site were the septic tank/drainfield, the area outside the service door where wastes used to be discarded and the soils under the facility floor slab in the vicinity of the drycleaning machine.

Remediation Status: In active remediation


Contaminants
Contaminants present and the highest amount detected in both soil and groundwater.


Contaminant Media Concentration (ppb) Nondetect
cis-1,2-Dichloroethene groundwater
1,1-Dichloroethene groundwater
Tetrachloroethene (PCE) groundwater
Tetrachloroethene (PCE) soil
Trichloroethene (TCE) groundwater
trans-1,2-Dichloroethene groundwater
Vinyl Chloride groundwater

Site Hydrology

Deepest Significant Groundwater Contamination:   12ft bgs
Plume Size:   Plume Length: 100ft
Plume Width: 280ft
Plume Thickness: 7ft
Average Depth to Groundwater:   3.85ft

Lithology and Subsurface Geology

 
  fine-grained sand
Depth: 0-7ft bgs
7ft thick
Conductivity: 10ft/day
Gradient: 0.02ft/ft
 
  Clayey fine-grained sand grading to sandy clay
Depth: 7-15ft bgs
8ft thick
 
  stiff clay
Depth: 15-26ft bgs
11ft thick

Pathways and DNAPL Presence

checkGroundwater
Sediments
checkSoil
checkDNAPL Present

Vapor Intrusion Pathway

Has the potential for vapor intrusion (VI) been evaluated?
  No
Has a vapor mitigation system been installed?
  Yes 
Type of Vapor Mitigation System(s):
  Soil Vapor Extraction

Remediation Scenario

Cleanup Goals:
  Groundwater (MCLs):
PCE= 3 ug/l, TCE=3 ug/l, cis 1,2-DCE=70 ug/l, trans 1,2-DCE=100 ug/l, Vinyl chloride=1.0 ug/l

Soils (Leachability-based levels):
PCE=30 ug/kg, TCE=30 ug/kg, cis 1,2-DCE=400 ug/kg, trans 1,2-DCE=700 ug/kg, Vinyl chloride= 7 ug/kg
Remedy Level:
  Full Scale Remedy

Technologies

In Situ Bioremediation
 

Why the technology was selected:
Biostimulation was instituted to polish low PCE concentrations in groundwater near the septic tank.

Date implemented:
Biostimulation: Injection event - November 18-22, 2008.

Final remediation design:
The biostimulation injection used a total of 9,275 gallons of EOS solution (714 gallons of EOS diluted approximatley 12:1) + 208 ounces of Vitamin B12 supplement. Average EOs concentration was 7.7%. Injection was via three wells screened 3-12 ft BLS.

Other technologies used:
Biostimulation

Results to date:
The multi-phase extraction system was operated until September 2002 then restarted and run intermittently from June to July 2004 and from September 2004 until May 2005. The SVE system was designed and installed after addtional soil sampling at the site found contamination under the facility floor slab. PCE persisted in groundwater in the area around the septic tank. This prompted the November 2008 EOS injection. The last monitor wells to produce groundwater samples with PCE concentrations were the ones located adjacent to the septic tank. A March 2009 monitoring found these wells non-detect for PCE. The VOC influent concentration for the SVE system was 2.4 milligrams per cubic meter PCE and 0.3 milligrams per cubic meter on February 16, 2009.

Next Steps:
Continue to operate the SVE system. Continue to monitor groundwater and look for rebound of PCE.

Cost to Design and Implement:
Design & Implement EOS Injection: $45,500

In Situ Multi Phase Extraction
 

Why the technology was selected:
Multi-phase extraction was selected as the remedial technology at this site because of the shallow depth of the contaminants; the relatively small plume size and the space constraints at the site.

Date implemented:
Multi-phase extraction system: March 7, 2001

Final remediation design:
A multi-phase extraction system was designed to extract contaminants in soil and groundwater from area around the septic tank/drainfield. The system consists of seven (7) 4-inch diameter recovery wells screened 3-12 ft BLS. The system is powered by a 25 HP liquid ring vacuum pump. Design flow is 2 gpm. Extracted groundwater is treated using a low-profile air stripper and treated groundwater is discharged to an infiltration gallery. Off gas is treated via two 140-lb. G.A.C. vessels. Design flow rate for the vapor recovery is 100 scfm.

Results to date:
The multi-phase extraction system was operated until September 2002 then restarted and run intermittently from June to July 2004 and from September 2004 until May 2005. The SVE system was designed and installed after addtional soil sampling at the site found contamination under the facility floor slab. PCE persisted in groundwater in the area around the septic tank. This prompted the November 2008 EOS injection. The last monitor wells to produce groundwater samples with PCE concentrations were the ones located adjacent to the septic tank. A March 2009 monitoring found these wells non-detect for PCE. The VOC influent concentration for the SVE system was 2.4 milligrams per cubic meter PCE and 0.3 milligrams per cubic meter on February 16, 2009.

Next Steps:
Continue to operate the SVE system. Continue to monitor groundwater and look for rebound of PCE.

Cost to Design and Implement:
Design & Implement Septic Cleanout & Dual Phase Extraction: $67,700

In Situ Soil Vapor Extraction
 

Why the technology was selected:
A soil vapor extracton system was installed beneath the facility floor slab to remediate contaminants in the unsaturated zone.

Date implemented:
Soil Vapor Extraction System: January 15, 2008

Final remediation design:
The soil vapor extraction system consists of two vapor recovery wells screened 1-4 ft BLS installed in 2-foot diameter boreholes beneath the facility floor slab. In addition to these wells, two multi-phase extraction wells were also utilized for vapor recovery when the SVE system was started up. The system is powered by a 2.5 HP blower and off gas is treated via a 140-lb. G.A.C. unit. system air flow rate ranges from 70-105 scfm with a vacuum range of from 14-28 inches w.c.

Results to date:
The SVE system was designed and installed after addtional soil sampling at the site found contamination under the facility floor slab. PCE persisted in groundwater in the area around the septic tank. This prompted the November 2008 EOS injection. The last monitor wells to produce groundwater samples with PCE concentrations were the ones located adjacent to the septic tank. A March 2009 monitoring found these wells non-detect for PCE. The VOC influent concentration for the SVE system was 2.4 milligrams per cubic meter PCE and 0.3 milligrams per cubic meter on February 16, 2009.

Next Steps:
Continue to operate the SVE system. Continue to monitor groundwater and look for rebound of PCE.

Cost to Design and Implement:
Design & Implement SVE: $58,100

Ex Situ Carbon Adsorption
 

Why the technology was selected:
A soil vapor extracton system was installed beneath the facility floor slab to remediate contaminants in the unsaturated zone.

Date implemented:
Soil Vapor Extraction System: January 15, 2008

Final remediation design:
The soil vapor extraction system consists of two vapor recovery wells screened 1-4 ft BLS installed in 2-foot diameter boreholes beneath the facility floor slab. In addition to these wells, two multi-phase extraction wells were also utilized for vapor recovery when the SVE system was started up. The system is powered by a 2.5 HP blower and off gas is treated via a 140-lb. G.A.C. unit. system air flow rate ranges from 70-105 scfm with a vacuum range of from 14-28 inches w.c.

Results to date:
The SVE system was designed and installed after addtional soil sampling at the site found contamination under the facility floor slab. PCE persisted in groundwater in the area around the septic tank. This prompted the November 2008 EOS injection. The last monitor wells to produce groundwater samples with PCE concentrations were the ones located adjacent to the septic tank. A March 2009 monitoring found these wells non-detect for PCE. The VOC influent concentration for the SVE system was 2.4 milligrams per cubic meter PCE and 0.3 milligrams per cubic meter on February 16, 2009.

Next Steps:
Continue to operate the SVE system. Continue to monitor groundwater and look for rebound of PCE.

Cost to Design and Implement:
Design & Implement SVE: $58,100

Ex Situ Soil Removal
 

Why the technology was selected:
The septic tank was cleaned out because free phase PCE was found in the tank sludge.

Date implemented:
Septic tank clean out: January 2001

Final remediation design:
The septic tank was cleaned out and pressure washed. Free-phase PCE was found in the septic tank. Forty-four drums of sludge/wastewater was shippped offsite as hazardous waste.

Other technologies used:
Septic tank cleanout.

Next Steps:
Continue to operate the SVE system. Continue to monitor groundwater and look for rebound of PCE.

Cost to Design and Implement:
Design & Implement Septic Cleanout & Dual Phase Extraction: $67,700

Costs

Cost for Assessment:
  $62,900
Cost for Operation and Maintenance:
  Total Operation & Maintenance (including monitoring) to date: $267,300 Annual O&M for SVE: $ 31,200
Total Costs for Cleanup:
 

Lessons Learned

1. Location of potential DNAPL source areas, e.g. DNAPL-contaminated septic tanks and drainfields, are critical to assessment, design, and remediation.

2. It is doubtful that a PCE drycleaning operation served by a septic tank can comply with RCRA.

Contacts

Miranda Bartlett, Project Manager
Bureau of Waste Cleanup (MS4520)
Florida Department of Environmental Protection
2600 Blair Stone Road
Tallahassee, Florida 32399-2400
Phone (850) 245-8941
e-mail: Miranda.Bartlett@dep.state.fl.us

Kevin M. Warner, PE
LFR Levine-Fricke, Inc.
3382 Capital Circle, N.e., Suite 200
Tallahassee, Florida 32308-1568
Phone: (850) 422-2555
E-mail: Kevin.Warner@lfr.com

Site Specific References

Contamination Assessment Report-12/15/97
Remedial Action Plan-9/6/00
Dual Phase Extraction Remediation System Construction Completion and Startup Report-6/22/01
Remedial Action Plan (SVE): 2007
Operation & Maintenance Reports: 2001 - 2009.