Drycleaner Site Profiles

Paul's Classic Drycleaners, --, Wisconsin

Description
Historical activity that resulted in contamination.

Paul's Classic Cleaners is a closed facility that operated in a commercial setting from the 1980s until 2002. Investigations revealed the presence of chlorinated compounds in the soil and groundwater. Contamination had migrated off-site, but did not impact drinking water wells. The most likely source of contamination appears to be the disposal of solvent wastes into the sewer system. The exact quantity of perchloroethylene (PCE) released is unknown. The underlying statutory authority for the cleanup is Chapter 292 of the Wisconsin Statutes, also known as the "Spill Law." The investigation and remediation activity at the site have qualified for financial reimbursement through the Wisconsin Drycleaner Environmental Response Program.

Contaminants
Contaminants present and the highest amount detected in both soil and groundwater.


Contaminant Media Concentration (ppb) Nondetect
cis-1,2-Dichloroethene groundwater 5,400 ppb
Tetrachloroethene (PCE) groundwater 27,000 ppb
Tetrachloroethene (PCE) soil 5,600 ppb
Trichloroethene (TCE) groundwater 2,300 ppb
Trichloroethene (TCE) soil 134 ppb
trans-1,2-Dichloroethene groundwater 74 ppb
Vinyl Chloride groundwater 120 ppb

Site Hydrology

Deepest Significant Groundwater Contamination:   75ft bgs
Plume Size:   Plume Length: 100ft
Average Depth to Groundwater:   9.5ft

Lithology and Subsurface Geology

 
  fill material
Depth: 0-2ft bgs
2ft thick
Conductivity: 0.28ft/day
Gradient: 0.002ft/ft
 
  Interbedded clay, silt, and sand
Depth: 2-10ft bgs
8ft thick
 
  clean sand
Depth: 10-18ft bgs
8ft thick
 
  fluvial sand
Depth: 18-35ft bgs
17ft thick
Conductivity: 8.5ft/day
 
  sandstone bedrock
Depth: 35ft bgs

Pathways and DNAPL Presence

checkGroundwater
Sediments
checkSoil
DNAPL Present

Remediation Scenario

Cleanup Goals:
  The ultimate cleanup goal is to reduce contaminant concentrations to the groundwater quality standards established in the Wisconsin Administrative Code, NR 140. The enforcement standard for PCE is 5 µg/L. Remediation activities should remove the contaminant source, stabilize plume migration, and minimize long term threats posed to human health and the environment.

Technologies

In Situ Air Stripping
 

Why the technology was selected:
The high water levels at the site limit the usefulness of Soil Vapor Extraction. Therefore, contractors also selected multi-phase extraction with treatment of extracted groundwater by air stripping as the most cost effective remedial approach for the site.

Date implemented:
August 2002

Final remediation design:
The Multi-phase Extraction (MPX) system uses high vacuum to simultaneously extract vapors, contaminated groundwater, and free-phase liquids from the subsurface vadose zone and aquifer. There are ten MPX wells at the site. In addition, there are two groundwater extraction wells. Groundwater and extracted product are then treated through an air stripper and a diffused aeration tank.

Results to date:
The multi-phase extraction system (MPX) has extracted 9,398,125 gallons of groundwater as of January 2005. The estimated amount of chlorinated volatile organic compounds removed in both soil and groundwater is 120 pounds. Examples of reduction in PCE groundwater contaminant concentrations at two near-source monitoring wells: MW-8 detected PCE at 13,000 ug/L in December 1999 reduced to 810 ug/L in October 2004. MW-9 detected PCE at 8,700 ug/L in December 1999, reduced to 890 ug/L in October 2004.

Next Steps:
Continued operation of the remediation system and groundwater monitoring.

Cost to Design and Implement:
Costs for the MPX and groundwater extraction system are $230,376.

In Situ Multi Phase Extraction
 

Why the technology was selected:
The high water levels at the site limit the usefulness of Soil Vapor Extraction. Therefore, contractors also selected multi-phase extraction with treatment of extracted groundwater by air stripping as the most cost effective remedial approach for the site.

Date implemented:
August 2002

Final remediation design:
The Multi-phase Extraction (MPX) system uses high vacuum to simultaneously extract vapors, contaminated groundwater, and free-phase liquids from the subsurface vadose zone and aquifer. There are ten MPX wells at the site. In addition, there are two groundwater extraction wells. Groundwater and extracted product are then treated through an air stripper and a diffused aeration tank.

Results to date:
The multi-phase extraction system (MPX) has extracted 9,398,125 gallons of groundwater as of January 2005. The estimated amount of chlorinated volatile organic compounds removed in both soil and groundwater is 120 pounds. Examples of reduction in PCE groundwater contaminant concentrations at two near-source monitoring wells: MW-8 detected PCE at 13,000 ug/L in December 1999 reduced to 810 ug/L in October 2004. MW-9 detected PCE at 8,700 ug/L in December 1999, reduced to 890 ug/L in October 2004.

Next Steps:
Continued operation of the remediation system and groundwater monitoring.

Cost to Design and Implement:
Costs for the MPX and groundwater extraction system are $230,376.

In Situ Soil Vapor Extraction
 

Why the technology was selected:
The high water levels at the site limit the usefulness of Soil Vapor Extraction. Therefore, contractors also selected multi-phase extraction with treatment of extracted groundwater by air stripping as the most cost effective remedial approach for the site.

Date implemented:
August 2002

Final remediation design:
The Multi-phase Extraction (MPX) system uses high vacuum to simultaneously extract vapors, contaminated groundwater, and free-phase liquids from the subsurface vadose zone and aquifer. There are ten MPX wells at the site. In addition, there are two groundwater extraction wells. Groundwater and extracted product are then treated through an air stripper and a diffused aeration tank.

Results to date:
The multi-phase extraction system (MPX) has extracted 9,398,125 gallons of groundwater as of January 2005. The estimated amount of chlorinated volatile organic compounds removed in both soil and groundwater is 120 pounds. Examples of reduction in PCE groundwater contaminant concentrations at two near-source monitoring wells: MW-8 detected PCE at 13,000 ug/L in December 1999 reduced to 810 ug/L in October 2004. MW-9 detected PCE at 8,700 ug/L in December 1999, reduced to 890 ug/L in October 2004.

Next Steps:
Continued operation of the remediation system and groundwater monitoring.

Cost to Design and Implement:
Costs for the MPX and groundwater extraction system are $230,376.

Ex Situ Pump and Treat
 

Why the technology was selected:
The high water levels at the site limit the usefulness of Soil Vapor Extraction. Therefore, contractors also selected multi-phase extraction with treatment of extracted groundwater by air stripping as the most cost effective remedial approach for the site.

Date implemented:
August 2002

Final remediation design:
The Multi-phase Extraction (MPX) system uses high vacuum to simultaneously extract vapors, contaminated groundwater, and free-phase liquids from the subsurface vadose zone and aquifer. There are ten MPX wells at the site. In addition, there are two groundwater extraction wells. Groundwater and extracted product are then treated through an air stripper and a diffused aeration tank.

Results to date:
The multi-phase extraction system (MPX) has extracted 9,398,125 gallons of groundwater as of January 2005. The estimated amount of chlorinated volatile organic compounds removed in both soil and groundwater is 120 pounds. Examples of reduction in PCE groundwater contaminant concentrations at two near-source monitoring wells: MW-8 detected PCE at 13,000 ug/L in December 1999 reduced to 810 ug/L in October 2004. MW-9 detected PCE at 8,700 ug/L in December 1999, reduced to 890 ug/L in October 2004.

Next Steps:
Continued operation of the remediation system and groundwater monitoring.

Cost to Design and Implement:
Costs for the MPX and groundwater extraction system are $230,376.

Costs

Cost for Assessment:
  $16,507.24 (soil); $66,028.89 (groundwater); ~$10,000 (laboratory)
Cost for Operation and Maintenance:
  Expect 5 years of operation and maintenance, followed by one year of natural attenuation monitoring. Estimate costs are $356,500.00. Total costs as of 2012 = $504,176 ($467,758 reimbursed and $36,418 deductible.)
Total Costs for Cleanup:
 

Lessons Learned

1. While the ozone sparge technology was effective in treating the chlorinated solvents, the presence of free phase product required enhancing the ozone sparge system and resulted in increased time to remediate the site. Both the treatment enhancements and extended treatment time made the ozone sparge treatment technology cost prohibitive.
2. The MPX system has been effective in plume containment and reduction in contaminant mass in soil and groundwater.

Contacts

Dino Tsoris, Hydrogeologist, P.G.
Remediation and Redevelopment Program
WI Department of Natural Resources
3911 Fish Hatchery Road
Fitchburg, WI 53711-5397
608-275-3299
tsoric@dnr.state.wi.us

Contractors:
Tom Bergamimi, P.G.
BT2, Inc.
2830 Dairy Drive
Madison, WI 53718-6751
608-224-2830