Drycleaner Site Profiles

Peerless Cleaners, Appleton, Wisconsin

Description
Historical activity that resulted in contamination.

Peerless Cleaners is an active drycleaner that operates in a mixed commercial and residential area. A gas station had operated at the site until Peerless Cleaners was established in 1950. Peerless Cleaners used mineral spirits in the cleaning process, and stored the mineral spirits in a 500-gal underground storage tank beneath the building. Investigations revealed petroleum and/or mineral spirits contamination primarily in the soil and groundwater. The most likely source of the mineral spirits contamination appears to have resulted from overfilling the tank. The exact quantity of mineral spirits discharged is unknown, but the contamination has not spread beyond the site. The tanks containing mineral spirits and petroleum have been removed from the site. The underlying statutory authority for the cleanup is Chapter 292 of the Wisconsin Statutes, also known as the "Spill Law." The investigation and remediation activity at the site have qualified for financial reimbursement through the Wisconsin Drycleaner Environmental Response Program.

Contaminants
Contaminants present and the highest amount detected in both soil and groundwater.


Contaminant Media Concentration (ppb) Nondetect
No corresponding contaminant soil 7,000 ppb
1,2-Dichloroethane soil 34 ppb
ethylbenzene soil 2,222 ppb
Tetrachloroethene (PCE) groundwater 4.8 ppb
Tetrachloroethene (PCE) soil 4,911 ppb
naphthalene soil 3,194 ppb
Trichloroethene (TCE) groundwater 1.51 ppb
toluene soil 10 ppb
xylenes soil 1,200 ppb
1,2-Dichloroethene groundwater 0.7 ppb

Site Hydrology

Deepest Significant Groundwater Contamination:   45ft bgs
Plume Size:   Plume Length: 140ft
Plume Width: 100ft
Average Depth to Groundwater:   6.5ft

Lithology and Subsurface Geology

 
  Topsoil, with gravel
Depth: 0-2.5ft bgs
2.5ft thick
Conductivity: 0.28ft/day
Gradient: 0.033ft/ft
 
  gravel
Depth: 2.5-5.5ft bgs
3ft thick
 
  Silty clay, tight with sand
Depth: 5.5-10.5ft bgs
5ft thick
 
  gravel
Depth: 10.5-11.5ft bgs
1ft thick
 
  silty clay
Depth: 11.5-12.5ft bgs
1ft thick
 
  Silty clay, pebble bearing
Depth: 12.5-17.5ft bgs
5ft thick

Pathways and DNAPL Presence

checkGroundwater
Sediments
checkSoil
DNAPL Present

Remediation Scenario

Cleanup Goals:
  The remedial goals included the removal of as much of the source as possible, and to allow natural attenuation to work on the groundwater contamination to below the NR140 PAL within a reasonable period of time.

Technologies

In Situ Other
 

Why the technology was selected:
These technologies are the most effective, feasible method of contaminant containment in clay, and to inhibit migration of chlorinated compounds in groundwater.

Final remediation design:
Contractors excavated 18 tons of soil containing elevated concentrations of chlorinated compounds and petroleum products and transported the soil off-site for landfill disposal. The landfill treated the soil using biopiles, which introduces air and organisms into the soil to induce air flow and eventual bioremediation. Contractors installed a passive SVE system to enhance removal of soil vapors from and natural degradation in the excavation, then backfilled it with pea gravel and sealed it with about 6 in. of concrete flooring. The SVE system was vented through the flooring and out of the building, and air emissions were monitored with a photoionization detector. Monitoring wells were installed to evaluate groundwater contamination and assess whether in situ conditions would promote biodegradation to bring groundwater quality into compliance in a timely manner.

Results to date:
After excavation, chlorinated compound concentrations, including PCE, were non-detect. Naphthalene concentrations were 0.08-0.28 µg/kg, toluene was 0.028 µg/kg, and total xylenes were at 7.1 µg/kg. Quarterly groundwater monitoring reports revealed a trend of increasing PCE concentrations until May 1996. PCE concentrations peaked at 4.8 µg/L, and have since decreased to 3.4 µg/L. The tanks containing mineral spirits and petroleum have been removed from the site. Wisconsin DNR granted closure approval for both the leaking petroleum USTs and the mineral spirits contamination. Quarterly groundwater monitoring identifies PCE concentrations exceeding the WI state groundwater quality Preventive Action Limit (PAL) (NR 140 Wis. Adm. Code) of 0.5 mg/L.

Cost to Design and Implement:
All technologies: $13,952.53 (soil); $5,239.36 (includes just under two years of operation and maintenance activities)

Ex Situ Biopile
 

Why the technology was selected:
These technologies are the most effective, feasible method of contaminant containment in clay, and to inhibit migration of chlorinated compounds in groundwater.

Final remediation design:
Contractors excavated 18 tons of soil containing elevated concentrations of chlorinated compounds and petroleum products and transported the soil off-site for landfill disposal. The landfill treated the soil using biopiles, which introduces air and organisms into the soil to induce air flow and eventual bioremediation. Contractors installed a passive SVE system to enhance removal of soil vapors from and natural degradation in the excavation, then backfilled it with pea gravel and sealed it with about 6 in. of concrete flooring. The SVE system was vented through the flooring and out of the building, and air emissions were monitored with a photoionization detector. Monitoring wells were installed to evaluate groundwater contamination and assess whether in situ conditions would promote biodegradation to bring groundwater quality into compliance in a timely manner.

Results to date:
After excavation, chlorinated compound concentrations, including PCE, were non-detect. Naphthalene concentrations were 0.08-0.28 µg/kg, toluene was 0.028 µg/kg, and total xylenes were at 7.1 µg/kg. Quarterly groundwater monitoring reports revealed a trend of increasing PCE concentrations until May 1996. PCE concentrations peaked at 4.8 µg/L, and have since decreased to 3.4 µg/L. The tanks containing mineral spirits and petroleum have been removed from the site. Wisconsin DNR granted closure approval for both the leaking petroleum USTs and the mineral spirits contamination. Quarterly groundwater monitoring identifies PCE concentrations exceeding the WI state groundwater quality Preventive Action Limit (PAL) (NR 140 Wis. Adm. Code) of 0.5 mg/L.

Cost to Design and Implement:
All technologies: $13,952.53 (soil); $5,239.36 (includes just under two years of operation and maintenance activities)

Ex Situ Bioremediation
 

Why the technology was selected:
These technologies are the most effective, feasible method of contaminant containment in clay, and to inhibit migration of chlorinated compounds in groundwater.

Final remediation design:
Contractors excavated 18 tons of soil containing elevated concentrations of chlorinated compounds and petroleum products and transported the soil off-site for landfill disposal. The landfill treated the soil using biopiles, which introduces air and organisms into the soil to induce air flow and eventual bioremediation. Contractors installed a passive SVE system to enhance removal of soil vapors from and natural degradation in the excavation, then backfilled it with pea gravel and sealed it with about 6 in. of concrete flooring. The SVE system was vented through the flooring and out of the building, and air emissions were monitored with a photoionization detector. Monitoring wells were installed to evaluate groundwater contamination and assess whether in situ conditions would promote biodegradation to bring groundwater quality into compliance in a timely manner.

Results to date:
After excavation, chlorinated compound concentrations, including PCE, were non-detect. Naphthalene concentrations were 0.08-0.28 µg/kg, toluene was 0.028 µg/kg, and total xylenes were at 7.1 µg/kg. Quarterly groundwater monitoring reports revealed a trend of increasing PCE concentrations until May 1996. PCE concentrations peaked at 4.8 µg/L, and have since decreased to 3.4 µg/L. The tanks containing mineral spirits and petroleum have been removed from the site. Wisconsin DNR granted closure approval for both the leaking petroleum USTs and the mineral spirits contamination. Quarterly groundwater monitoring identifies PCE concentrations exceeding the WI state groundwater quality Preventive Action Limit (PAL) (NR 140 Wis. Adm. Code) of 0.5 mg/L.

Cost to Design and Implement:
All technologies: $13,952.53 (soil); $5,239.36 (includes just under two years of operation and maintenance activities)

Ex Situ Soil Removal
 

Why the technology was selected:
These technologies are the most effective, feasible method of contaminant containment in clay, and to inhibit migration of chlorinated compounds in groundwater.

Final remediation design:
Contractors excavated 18 tons of soil containing elevated concentrations of chlorinated compounds and petroleum products and transported the soil off-site for landfill disposal. The landfill treated the soil using biopiles, which introduces air and organisms into the soil to induce air flow and eventual bioremediation. Contractors installed a passive SVE system to enhance removal of soil vapors from and natural degradation in the excavation, then backfilled it with pea gravel and sealed it with about 6 in. of concrete flooring. The SVE system was vented through the flooring and out of the building, and air emissions were monitored with a photoionization detector. Monitoring wells were installed to evaluate groundwater contamination and assess whether in situ conditions would promote biodegradation to bring groundwater quality into compliance in a timely manner.

Results to date:
After excavation, chlorinated compound concentrations, including PCE, were non-detect. Naphthalene concentrations were 0.08-0.28 µg/kg, toluene was 0.028 µg/kg, and total xylenes were at 7.1 µg/kg. Quarterly groundwater monitoring reports revealed a trend of increasing PCE concentrations until May 1996. PCE concentrations peaked at 4.8 µg/L, and have since decreased to 3.4 µg/L. The tanks containing mineral spirits and petroleum have been removed from the site. Wisconsin DNR granted closure approval for both the leaking petroleum USTs and the mineral spirits contamination. Quarterly groundwater monitoring identifies PCE concentrations exceeding the WI state groundwater quality Preventive Action Limit (PAL) (NR 140 Wis. Adm. Code) of 0.5 mg/L.

Cost to Design and Implement:
All technologies: $13,952.53 (soil); $5,239.36 (includes just under two years of operation and maintenance activities)

Ex Situ Soil Vapor Extraction
 

Why the technology was selected:
These technologies are the most effective, feasible method of contaminant containment in clay, and to inhibit migration of chlorinated compounds in groundwater.

Final remediation design:
Contractors excavated 18 tons of soil containing elevated concentrations of chlorinated compounds and petroleum products and transported the soil off-site for landfill disposal. The landfill treated the soil using biopiles, which introduces air and organisms into the soil to induce air flow and eventual bioremediation. Contractors installed a passive SVE system to enhance removal of soil vapors from and natural degradation in the excavation, then backfilled it with pea gravel and sealed it with about 6 in. of concrete flooring. The SVE system was vented through the flooring and out of the building, and air emissions were monitored with a photoionization detector. Monitoring wells were installed to evaluate groundwater contamination and assess whether in situ conditions would promote biodegradation to bring groundwater quality into compliance in a timely manner.

Results to date:
After excavation, chlorinated compound concentrations, including PCE, were non-detect. Naphthalene concentrations were 0.08-0.28 µg/kg, toluene was 0.028 µg/kg, and total xylenes were at 7.1 µg/kg. Quarterly groundwater monitoring reports revealed a trend of increasing PCE concentrations until May 1996. PCE concentrations peaked at 4.8 µg/L, and have since decreased to 3.4 µg/L. The tanks containing mineral spirits and petroleum have been removed from the site. Wisconsin DNR granted closure approval for both the leaking petroleum USTs and the mineral spirits contamination. Quarterly groundwater monitoring identifies PCE concentrations exceeding the WI state groundwater quality Preventive Action Limit (PAL) (NR 140 Wis. Adm. Code) of 0.5 mg/L.

Cost to Design and Implement:
All technologies: $13,952.53 (soil); $5,239.36 (includes just under two years of operation and maintenance activities)

Costs

Cost for Assessment:
  $4,674.00 (soil); $4,927.50 (groundwater)
Cost for Operation and Maintenance:
 
Total Costs for Cleanup:
  $28,793.97. Site closed 1997; no additional monitoring or other action.

Contacts

Jennifer Borski
Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources
625 E. Cty Rd Y, STE 700
Oshkosh, WI 54901-9731
(920) 424-7887
jennifer.borski@dnr.state.wi.us

Contractors:
Brad Opperman, Hydrogeologist
Northern Environmental Technologies, Inc.
1214 West Venture Court
Mequon, Wisconsin 53092
262-241-3133
boppermann@northern-env.com