Drycleaner Site Profiles

Stannard Dry Cleaners and Launderers, Oshkosh, Wisconsin

Description
Historical activity that resulted in contamination.

The Stannard Dry Cleaners and Launderers has operated in a commercial area since the 1962. Other drycleaning facilities had operated at this location prior to Stannard, since the 1930s. The facility historically used Stoddard solvents in drycleaning operations. A fuel oil tank was discovered during construction activities to expand the building. Subsequent investigations identified mineral spirits contamination in the groundwater. The exact quantity and nature of the discharge is unknown, but the likely source is the release of Stoddard solvent from leaking underground storage tanks. Vinyl Chloride was also identified in groundwater at levels exceeding NR 140 Wisc. Adm. Code. The levels of vinyl chloride are relatively small and do not appear to go off-site; thus groundwater monitoring of the natural attenuation processes will likely be a cost effective remedial method at this site. The underlying statutory authority for the cleanup is Chapter 292 of the Wisconsin Statutes, also known as the "Spill Law." The investigation and remediation activity at the site have qualified for financial reimbursement through the Wisconsin Drycleaner Environmental Response Program.

Contaminants
Contaminants present and the highest amount detected in both soil and groundwater.


Contaminant Media Concentration (ppb) Nondetect
free-phase Stoddard's Solvent groundwater 1,500 ppb
naphthalene groundwater 74 ppb
Trichloroethene (TCE) groundwater 3.4 ppb
Vinyl Chloride groundwater 2.3 ppb

Site Hydrology

Deepest Significant Groundwater Contamination:  
Plume Size:   Plume Length: 70ft
Plume Width: 35ft
Plume Thickness: 6ft
Average Depth to Groundwater:   5.5ft

Lithology and Subsurface Geology

 
  glacial till clay with occasional fine sand layers
Depth: 0-20ft bgs
20ft thick
Conductivity: 0.0003ft/day
 
  Fractured dolomite/limestone bedroc
Depth: 20ft bgs

Pathways and DNAPL Presence

checkGroundwater
Sediments
Soil
DNAPL Present

Remediation Scenario

Cleanup Goals:
  The remedial goals include the removal of as much of the source as possible, particularly at hot spots. Groundwater remediation will be designed to restore groundwater quality according to the enforcement standards established NR 140 Wis. Adm. Code. However, evaluation of seasonal trends in concentration will determine whether it is appropriate to allow the groundwater to naturally attenuate. Future groundwater monitoring events will provide data for closure determination according the NR 140 regulations.

Technologies

In Situ Cap
 

Why the technology was selected:
Contractors viewed these technologies as the most effective, feasible methods to remove the source, and to inhibit further migration of mineral spirits compounds in groundwater.

Final remediation design:
Contractors excavated 594 tons of soil containing elevated contaminant concentrations and transported it off-site for chemical treatment and landfill disposal. The landfill treated the soil using biopiles, which introduces air and organisms into the soil to induce air flow and eventual bioremediation. Contractors removed 8 underground storage tanks, 5 of which stored Stoddard and fuel oil, 2 that stored fuel oil only, and 1 that stored Stoddard only. One-inch Geoprobe temporary wells were installed to evaluate groundwater. Contractors also have installed a permanent well system, including 5 monitoring wells (13 ft. bgs.) and a piezometer, to assess whether in-situ conditions would promote biodegradation and allow natural attenuation to bring groundwater into compliance within a reasonable period of time.

Results to date:
Soil removal: Contaminant concentrations for the soil disposed of it in an off-site landfill are completed. Natural attenuation does appear to be a viable option and monitoring results have indicated progress towards closure of the site.

Next Steps:
This site was closed Aug. 10, 2004. A deed restriction was placed on the deed because soil contamination remains at the site. The property was also placed on the Wisconsin GIS Registry of Closed Remediation Sites. Additional information on the close out and contamination can be found at this link: http://maps.dnr.state.wi.us/efiles/Ner/Winnebago/02%20ERP/0271250398/0271250398.pdf

Cost to Design and Implement:
$38,969(soil)

In Situ Monitored Natural Attenuation
 

Why the technology was selected:
Contractors viewed these technologies as the most effective, feasible methods to remove the source, and to inhibit further migration of mineral spirits compounds in groundwater.

Final remediation design:
Contractors excavated 594 tons of soil containing elevated contaminant concentrations and transported it off-site for chemical treatment and landfill disposal. The landfill treated the soil using biopiles, which introduces air and organisms into the soil to induce air flow and eventual bioremediation. Contractors removed 8 underground storage tanks, 5 of which stored Stoddard and fuel oil, 2 that stored fuel oil only, and 1 that stored Stoddard only. One-inch Geoprobe temporary wells were installed to evaluate groundwater. Contractors also have installed a permanent well system, including 5 monitoring wells (13 ft. bgs.) and a piezometer, to assess whether in-situ conditions would promote biodegradation and allow natural attenuation to bring groundwater into compliance within a reasonable period of time.

Results to date:
Soil removal: Contaminant concentrations for the soil disposed of it in an off-site landfill are completed. Natural attenuation does appear to be a viable option and monitoring results have indicated progress towards closure of the site.

Next Steps:
This site was closed Aug. 10, 2004. A deed restriction was placed on the deed because soil contamination remains at the site. The property was also placed on the Wisconsin GIS Registry of Closed Remediation Sites. Additional information on the close out and contamination can be found at this link: http://maps.dnr.state.wi.us/efiles/Ner/Winnebago/02%20ERP/0271250398/0271250398.pdf

Cost to Design and Implement:
$38,969(soil)

Ex Situ Biopile
 

Why the technology was selected:
Contractors viewed these technologies as the most effective, feasible methods to remove the source, and to inhibit further migration of mineral spirits compounds in groundwater.

Final remediation design:
Contractors excavated 594 tons of soil containing elevated contaminant concentrations and transported it off-site for chemical treatment and landfill disposal. The landfill treated the soil using biopiles, which introduces air and organisms into the soil to induce air flow and eventual bioremediation. Contractors removed 8 underground storage tanks, 5 of which stored Stoddard and fuel oil, 2 that stored fuel oil only, and 1 that stored Stoddard only. One-inch Geoprobe temporary wells were installed to evaluate groundwater. Contractors also have installed a permanent well system, including 5 monitoring wells (13 ft. bgs.) and a piezometer, to assess whether in-situ conditions would promote biodegradation and allow natural attenuation to bring groundwater into compliance within a reasonable period of time.

Results to date:
Soil removal: Contaminant concentrations for the soil disposed of it in an off-site landfill are completed. Natural attenuation does appear to be a viable option and monitoring results have indicated progress towards closure of the site.

Next Steps:
This site was closed Aug. 10, 2004. A deed restriction was placed on the deed because soil contamination remains at the site. The property was also placed on the Wisconsin GIS Registry of Closed Remediation Sites. Additional information on the close out and contamination can be found at this link: http://maps.dnr.state.wi.us/efiles/Ner/Winnebago/02%20ERP/0271250398/0271250398.pdf

Cost to Design and Implement:
$38,969(soil)

Ex Situ Bioremediation
 

Why the technology was selected:
Contractors viewed these technologies as the most effective, feasible methods to remove the source, and to inhibit further migration of mineral spirits compounds in groundwater.

Final remediation design:
Contractors excavated 594 tons of soil containing elevated contaminant concentrations and transported it off-site for chemical treatment and landfill disposal. The landfill treated the soil using biopiles, which introduces air and organisms into the soil to induce air flow and eventual bioremediation. Contractors removed 8 underground storage tanks, 5 of which stored Stoddard and fuel oil, 2 that stored fuel oil only, and 1 that stored Stoddard only. One-inch Geoprobe temporary wells were installed to evaluate groundwater. Contractors also have installed a permanent well system, including 5 monitoring wells (13 ft. bgs.) and a piezometer, to assess whether in-situ conditions would promote biodegradation and allow natural attenuation to bring groundwater into compliance within a reasonable period of time.

Results to date:
Soil removal: Contaminant concentrations for the soil disposed of it in an off-site landfill are completed. Natural attenuation does appear to be a viable option and monitoring results have indicated progress towards closure of the site.

Next Steps:
This site was closed Aug. 10, 2004. A deed restriction was placed on the deed because soil contamination remains at the site. The property was also placed on the Wisconsin GIS Registry of Closed Remediation Sites. Additional information on the close out and contamination can be found at this link: http://maps.dnr.state.wi.us/efiles/Ner/Winnebago/02%20ERP/0271250398/0271250398.pdf

Cost to Design and Implement:
$38,969(soil)

Ex Situ Soil Removal
 

Why the technology was selected:
Contractors viewed these technologies as the most effective, feasible methods to remove the source, and to inhibit further migration of mineral spirits compounds in groundwater.

Final remediation design:
Contractors excavated 594 tons of soil containing elevated contaminant concentrations and transported it off-site for chemical treatment and landfill disposal. The landfill treated the soil using biopiles, which introduces air and organisms into the soil to induce air flow and eventual bioremediation. Contractors removed 8 underground storage tanks, 5 of which stored Stoddard and fuel oil, 2 that stored fuel oil only, and 1 that stored Stoddard only. One-inch Geoprobe temporary wells were installed to evaluate groundwater. Contractors also have installed a permanent well system, including 5 monitoring wells (13 ft. bgs.) and a piezometer, to assess whether in-situ conditions would promote biodegradation and allow natural attenuation to bring groundwater into compliance within a reasonable period of time.

Results to date:
Soil removal: Contaminant concentrations for the soil disposed of it in an off-site landfill are completed. Natural attenuation does appear to be a viable option and monitoring results have indicated progress towards closure of the site.

Next Steps:
This site was closed Aug. 10, 2004. A deed restriction was placed on the deed because soil contamination remains at the site. The property was also placed on the Wisconsin GIS Registry of Closed Remediation Sites. Additional information on the close out and contamination can be found at this link: http://maps.dnr.state.wi.us/efiles/Ner/Winnebago/02%20ERP/0271250398/0271250398.pdf

Cost to Design and Implement:
$38,969(soil)

Costs

Cost for Assessment:
  $47,800
Cost for Operation and Maintenance:
  $7,335
Total Costs for Cleanup:
  $94,104 (plus $10,000 in deductible costs). Site closed in 2004.

Lessons Learned

1. It is important to carefully evaluate the site to determine its eligibility for the drycleaner reimbursement fund, even in the absence of chlorinated VOC contamination. The presence of Stoddard solvent contamination was initially misleading, and the presence of underground fuel oil tanks suggested the cleanup might have been addressed under the petroleum cleanup program. Closer evaluation of the Stoddard solvent contaminants prompted further site investigations and led to the conclusion that this site was eligible for the drycleaner program.

Contacts

Kathleen Sylvester, Hydrogeologist
Bureau for Remediation and Redevelopment
WI Department of Natural Resources
625 E. County Road Y, Suite 700
Oshkosh, WI 54901-9731
920-424-0399
kathy.sylvester@dnr.state.wi.us

Contractors:
Kendrick Ebbott, Project Manager
Alpha Terra Science
1237 S. Pilgrim Road
Plymouth, WI 53073
920-892-2444