Drycleaner Site Profiles

Foxy Cleaners & Tailoring, Aurora, Illinois

Description
Historical activity that resulted in contamination.

Foxy Cleaners & Tailoring has been an active dry-cleaning facility since 1988. The facility is located in a commercial strip mall in Aurora, Illinois. Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) is the only dry-cleaning solvent to have been used at the facility. From 1999 to 2004, site investigation activities were performed at the site. The area most significantly impacted at the site was the hazardous waste storage area. PCE levels in soil beneath the hazardous waste storage area measured as high as 2700 mg/kg. There have been no known releases from the site. Therefore, it was concluded that the storage of spent filters and still wastes, without any secondary containment, led to leakage over time. The PCE waste leakage penetrated the concrete floor inside the facility and contaminated the soils in the subsurface. There are no nearby receptors which could be impacted by the release; however, the city of Aurora does not have a groundwater ordinance restricting use of groundwater as a potable water source. Therefore, remediation of the site was required to obtain site closure under the Illinois EPA Voluntary Site Remediation Program. Prior to conducting the site investigation, a Phase I Environmental Site Assessment was also performed. The Phase I ESA did not identify any nearby environmental problems such as USTs or contaminated properties adjacent to the site. Prior to April 2007, no remediation had been performed to address the release at the site.

Remediation Status: In active remediation


Contaminants
Contaminants present and the highest amount detected in both soil and groundwater.


Contaminant Media Concentration (ppb) Nondetect
cis-1,2-Dichloroethene groundwater 210 ppb
cis-1,2-Dichloroethene soil 460 ppb
Tetrachloroethene (PCE) groundwater 420 ppb
Tetrachloroethene (PCE) soil 2,700,000 ppb
Trichloroethene (TCE) groundwater 140 ppb
Trichloroethene (TCE) soil 2,400 ppb
Vinyl Chloride groundwater 12 ppb
Vinyl Chloride soil 23 ppb

Site Hydrology

Deepest Significant Groundwater Contamination:   10ft bgs
Plume Size:   Plume Length: 180ft
Plume Width: 120ft
Plume Thickness: 10ft
Average Depth to Groundwater:   6ft

Lithology and Subsurface Geology

 
  Silty Clay with Cobbles
Depth: 1-8ft bgs
7ft thick
Conductivity: 3.09ft/day
Gradient: 0.0081ft/ft
 
  Sand
Depth: 8-16ft bgs
8ft thick
 
  Silty Clay
Depth: 16ft bgs

Pathways and DNAPL Presence

checkGroundwater
Sediments
checkSoil
checkDNAPL Present

Remediation Scenario

Cleanup Goals:
  Soil Risk Based Corrective Action (RBCA) equations were used to develop site specific soil remediation objectives which would limit impacted soil from potentially leaching into the groundwater above regulatory standards within the property boundaries. A soil remediation objective of 45 mg/kg was developed for PCE. TCE, DCE and Vinyl Chloride, although present, were at low levels and do not present a concern in soil at the site.

Groundwater - All contaminants present in groundwater are excluded as potential risks with an on-site deed restriction.

Technologies

In Situ Chemical Oxidation
 

Why the technology was selected:
Initially soil excavation was selected as the only remediation technology to be used at the site because it was the most cost effective option. The remediation plans included excavation of an area 12 feet long by 12 feet wide by 10 feet thick inside the rear entrance of the building. Chemical oxidation of impacted soils, which could not be removed, was part of a contingency plan for the site. Due to structural concerns with the building, a construction permit could not be obtained for the excavation to be completed beyond 4 feet in depth. Therefore, in accordance with the contingency plan, chemical oxidation was selected as a second technology to be used to remediate the soil at the site from 4 to 10 feet in depth.

Date implemented:
The chemical oxidation injection began on May 15, 2007 and was completed on May 16, 2007.

Final remediation design:
The remediation was completed by excavating shallow soils and treating deeper impacted soils using In-Situ Chemical Oxidation (ISCO). Superior excavated accessible soils in the remediation area using a mini excavator. Structural concerns with the building foundation did not allow the excavation deeper than 4 feet bgs. Per the request of the property owner, Superior completed the excavation without widening the back entrance of the facility. Approximately 30 tons of excavated soils were carefully loaded into two roll-off boxes and transported to a licensed hazardous waste landfill in Michigan. Immediately following the excavation, Superior constructed a scaffolding platform over the remediation area. The platform allowed Superior to safely perform the chemical oxidation injection and provided a temporary barrier over the remediation area. Approximately 1,100 gallons of sodium permanganate at a 15% solution were injected into the impacted soils that could not be excavated. The sodium permanganate was injected into 41 injection points at a pressure of 5,000 pounds per square inch (psi).

Results to date:
During August 2007, ten confirmation soil samples were collected from five soil borings drilled into the remediation area. The soil sampling results showed a 99.99% reduction in the contaminant concentrations. PCE concentrations in the confirmation samples ranged from no detection to 0.85 mg/kg in soils that previously contained PCE concentrations as high as 2,700 mg/kg. The ISCO reactions resulted in complete destruction of PCE to below the Illinois EPA approved remediation objectives with no generation of daughter products such as trichloroethylene, cis-1,2 dichloroethene or vinyl chloride.

Next Steps:
A Corrective Action Completion Report will be submitted to the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency during December 2007. A No Further Remediation Letter is expected by May 2008.

Cost to Design and Implement:
$125,122.00 (all technologies)

Ex Situ Soil Removal
 

Why the technology was selected:
Initially soil excavation was selected as the only remediation technology to be used at the site because it was the most cost effective option. The remediation plans included excavation of an area 12 feet long by 12 feet wide by 10 feet thick inside the rear entrance of the building. Chemical oxidation of impacted soils, which could not be removed, was part of a contingency plan for the site. Due to structural concerns with the building, a construction permit could not be obtained for the excavation to be completed beyond 4 feet in depth. Therefore, in accordance with the contingency plan, chemical oxidation was selected as a second technology to be used to remediate the soil at the site from 4 to 10 feet in depth.

Date implemented:
The excavation began on April 19, 2007 and was completed on April 30, 2007.

Final remediation design:
The remediation was completed by excavating shallow soils and treating deeper impacted soils using In-Situ Chemical Oxidation (ISCO). Superior excavated accessible soils in the remediation area using a mini excavator. Structural concerns with the building foundation did not allow the excavation deeper than 4 feet bgs. Per the request of the property owner, Superior completed the excavation without widening the back entrance of the facility. Approximately 30 tons of excavated soils were carefully loaded into two roll-off boxes and transported to a licensed hazardous waste landfill in Michigan. Immediately following the excavation, Superior constructed a scaffolding platform over the remediation area. The platform allowed Superior to safely perform the chemical oxidation injection and provided a temporary barrier over the remediation area. Approximately 1,100 gallons of sodium permanganate at a 15% solution were injected into the impacted soils that could not be excavated. The sodium permanganate was injected into 41 injection points at a pressure of 5,000 pounds per square inch (psi).

Results to date:
During August 2007, ten confirmation soil samples were collected from five soil borings drilled into the remediation area. The soil sampling results showed a 99.99% reduction in the contaminant concentrations. PCE concentrations in the confirmation samples ranged from no detection to 0.85 mg/kg in soils that previously contained PCE concentrations as high as 2,700 mg/kg. The ISCO reactions resulted in complete destruction of PCE to below the Illinois EPA approved remediation objectives with no generation of daughter products such as trichloroethylene, cis-1,2 dichloroethene or vinyl chloride.

Next Steps:
A Corrective Action Completion Report will be submitted to the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency during December 2007. A No Further Remediation Letter is expected by May 2008.

Cost to Design and Implement:
$125,122.00 (all technologies)

Costs

Cost for Assessment:
  $47,396.10
Cost for Operation and Maintenance:
  $0
Total Costs for Cleanup:
 

Lessons Learned

Combining remediation technologies, such as soil removal and in-situ chemical oxidation, can enhance the effectiveness of a site remediation. If we had a similar site we would definitely consider using the same technologies and approach. In retrospect, there is little that we would have done differently or could improve upon. Considering the effect that sodium permanganate had on contaminants at the site, perhaps less soil could have been excavated and alternatively treated in-situ with chemical oxidation. Excavating less soil would have provided some cost savings. Nonetheless, the remediation design and implementation was very effective, efficient and most importantly, we stayed under budget.

Contacts

Superior Environmental Corp
Chris Lee
951 South 7th Street
Rochelle, IL 61068
815-562-5541
c.lee@superiorenvironmental.com