Drycleaner Site Profiles

Fashion Cleaners (D-02-101), Shelbyville, Bedford Co., Tennessee

Description
Historical activity that resulted in contamination.

This is a abandoned drycleaning facility that began operation in 1965 and operated until 2003. It is located in a mixed residential/commercial area and is currently being used as a church. The facility used PCE all the years it was in operation. The main source area is located under the footprint of the building primarily in the area of the former drycleaning machine.There are no private wells or municipal water intakes in the vicinity of the facility.

Remediation Status: In active remediation


Contaminants
Contaminants present and the highest amount detected in both soil and groundwater.


Contaminant Media Concentration (ppb) Nondetect
cis-1,2-Dichloroethene groundwater
cis-1,2-Dichloroethene soil
Tetrachloroethene (PCE) groundwater
Tetrachloroethene (PCE) soil
Trichloroethene (TCE) groundwater
Trichloroethene (TCE) soil
Vinyl Chloride groundwater
Vinyl Chloride soil ND

Site Hydrology

Deepest Significant Groundwater Contamination:  
Plume Size:  
Average Depth to Groundwater:   25ft

Lithology and Subsurface Geology

 
  reddish-brown, cherty clay
Depth: 0-5ft bgs
5ft thick
Conductivity: 0.085322835ft/day
Gradient: 0.08ft/ft
Ordivician Age Lebanon Formation
  (thin bedded, grey limestone with calcareous shale partings
Depth: 5-95ft bgs
90ft thick

Pathways and DNAPL Presence

checkGroundwater
Sediments
checkSoil
DNAPL Present

Vapor Intrusion Pathway

Has the potential for vapor intrusion (VI) been evaluated?
  Yes
How was the site evaluated?
  Soil vapor and/or Sub-slab vapor sampling,Indoor air sampling
Results of VI evaluation:
  A potential VI pathway has been indentified
Has a vapor mitigation system been installed?
  Yes 
Type of Vapor Mitigation System(s):
 
Additional VI Information:
  November 2011- Due to CVOC levels present in groundwater and indoor air monitoring the unused injection gallery was convereted to a subslab depressurization system. Installed a 1/2 horsepower regenerative blower with a 1 1/4" exhaust vent terminating approximately 1 ft above roof level.

Remediation Scenario

Cleanup Goals:
  Clean-up goals are EPA MCL's
Remedy Level:
  Full Scale Remedy

Technologies

In Situ Bioremediation
 

Why the technology was selected:
Bioremediation was selected due to favorable groundwater chemistry. emulsified oil, Slow Release Subsrate (SRS)- emulsified oil was used in the first injection event (focus on source area). The Final Design remedy (second injection)utilized HRC-X with ZVI. ZVI was added to the solution mix in order to continue the breakdown of any remaining contamination once the HRC-X had been exhausted.

Date implemented:
Jan 2006. Interim Remedial Action. 1.) limited soil removal under the building was conducted during the installation of the infiltration points inside the building on January 17, 2006. Soil excavation was limited to two 55-gallon drums (800 lbs) of soil

Final remediation design:
4/08 Final Remedial Design HRC-X/ZVI Injection specialists (Innovative Environmental Technologies, Inc.) completed a total of six injections through permanently installed (exterior) 2" I.D. bedrock wells (1 upgradient to treat downgradient area under building, 4 on property boundary to prevent movement of contaminant offsite). These wells are set to a depth of 45' bgs and are screened from 35' to 45' bgs. A total of 600 gallons of sodium sulfite(50lbs)/nutrients(70lbs)/calcium propionate (222lbs) solution, 770 lbs of ZVI, 57K grams of vitamin B2, 2.169 kgs of vitamin B12 and 420 lbs of HRC-x. During the injection process, extreme back pressures were observed in the injection wells. Pressures of up to 175 psi were noted during injections. The wells were allowed to sit for 24-hours in order to equilibrate pressure. Wells were still pressurized and were manually released. Bedrock fractures affected the final injected volume of solution.

Results to date:
Pre- Interim Action Source area, emulsified oil SRS January 2006 PCE .178 mg/L TCE .053 mg/L DCE .067 mg/L VC .001 mg/L Post Interim action levels March 2007 PCE 0.150 mg/L TCE 0.071 mg/L DCE 0.070 mg/L VC 0.001 mg/L ___________________ Pre Final Remedy 6/2007 PCE - 0.110 mg/L TCE - 0.060 mg/L DCE - 0.065 mg/L VC - 0.003 mg/L Post-HRC-X/ZVI Injection (2nd Injection) contaminant levels: - Not collected at this point in time

Next Steps:
Addtional groundwater sampling to monitor the continued effectiveness of the HRC-X and ZVI.

In Situ Zero Valent Iron
 

Why the technology was selected:
Bioremediation was selected due to favorable groundwater chemistry. emulsified oil, Slow Release Subsrate (SRS)- emulsified oil was used in the first injection event (focus on source area). The Final Design remedy (second injection)utilized HRC-X with ZVI. ZVI was added to the solution mix in order to continue the breakdown of any remaining contamination once the HRC-X had been exhausted.

Date implemented:
Jan 2006. Interim Remedial Action. 1.) limited soil removal under the building was conducted during the installation of the infiltration points inside the building on January 17, 2006. Soil excavation was limited to two 55-gallon drums (800 lbs) of soil

Final remediation design:
4/08 Final Remedial Design HRC-X/ZVI Injection specialists (Innovative Environmental Technologies, Inc.) completed a total of six injections through permanently installed (exterior) 2" I.D. bedrock wells (1 upgradient to treat downgradient area under building, 4 on property boundary to prevent movement of contaminant offsite). These wells are set to a depth of 45' bgs and are screened from 35' to 45' bgs. A total of 600 gallons of sodium sulfite(50lbs)/nutrients(70lbs)/calcium propionate (222lbs) solution, 770 lbs of ZVI, 57K grams of vitamin B2, 2.169 kgs of vitamin B12 and 420 lbs of HRC-x. During the injection process, extreme back pressures were observed in the injection wells. Pressures of up to 175 psi were noted during injections. The wells were allowed to sit for 24-hours in order to equilibrate pressure. Wells were still pressurized and were manually released. Bedrock fractures affected the final injected volume of solution.

Results to date:
Pre- Interim Action Source area, emulsified oil SRS January 2006 PCE .178 mg/L TCE .053 mg/L DCE .067 mg/L VC .001 mg/L Post Interim action levels March 2007 PCE 0.150 mg/L TCE 0.071 mg/L DCE 0.070 mg/L VC 0.001 mg/L ___________________ Pre Final Remedy 6/2007 PCE - 0.110 mg/L TCE - 0.060 mg/L DCE - 0.065 mg/L VC - 0.003 mg/L Post-HRC-X/ZVI Injection (2nd Injection) contaminant levels: - Not collected at this point in time

Next Steps:
Addtional groundwater sampling to monitor the continued effectiveness of the HRC-X and ZVI.

Ex Situ Soil Removal
 

Date implemented:
Jan 2006. Interim Remedial Action. 1.) limited soil removal under the building was conducted during the installation of the infiltration points inside the building on January 17, 2006. Soil excavation was limited to two 55-gallon drums (800 lbs) of soil

Final remediation design:
4/08 Final Remedial Design HRC-X/ZVI Injection specialists (Innovative Environmental Technologies, Inc.) completed a total of six injections through permanently installed (exterior) 2" I.D. bedrock wells (1 upgradient to treat downgradient area under building, 4 on property boundary to prevent movement of contaminant offsite). These wells are set to a depth of 45' bgs and are screened from 35' to 45' bgs. A total of 600 gallons of sodium sulfite(50lbs)/nutrients(70lbs)/calcium propionate (222lbs) solution, 770 lbs of ZVI, 57K grams of vitamin B2, 2.169 kgs of vitamin B12 and 420 lbs of HRC-x. During the injection process, extreme back pressures were observed in the injection wells. Pressures of up to 175 psi were noted during injections. The wells were allowed to sit for 24-hours in order to equilibrate pressure. Wells were still pressurized and were manually released. Bedrock fractures affected the final injected volume of solution.

Results to date:
Pre- Interim Action Source area, emulsified oil SRS January 2006 PCE .178 mg/L TCE .053 mg/L DCE .067 mg/L VC .001 mg/L Post Interim action levels March 2007 PCE 0.150 mg/L TCE 0.071 mg/L DCE 0.070 mg/L VC 0.001 mg/L ___________________ Pre Final Remedy 6/2007 PCE - 0.110 mg/L TCE - 0.060 mg/L DCE - 0.065 mg/L VC - 0.003 mg/L Post-HRC-X/ZVI Injection (2nd Injection) contaminant levels: - Not collected at this point in time

Next Steps:
Addtional groundwater sampling to monitor the continued effectiveness of the HRC-X and ZVI.

Costs

Cost for Assessment:
 
Cost for Operation and Maintenance:
 
Total Costs for Cleanup:
  $229,188.00 as of April 2012

Lessons Learned

Problems with emulsified oil include possible clogging of pore spaces. Some wells were used during HRC-X and ZVI injection which clogged several monitoring wells. Repeated attempts to rehabilitate the wells failed and the wells were closed.

Contacts

Charles Rowan
State of Tennessee TDEC-DoR
Drycleaner Response Program
401 Church Street, Nashville, TN
615-532-7823

Innovative Environmantal Technologies (IET)Injection specilaist, amendment design, and specialized tooling.
1-888-721-8283

David Wyatt
EnSafe, Inc.
220 Athens Way, Suite 410
Nashville, Tennessee 37228
615.255.9300