Drycleaner Site Profiles

Former White Way Cleaners (D-19-150), Nashville, Davidson County, Tennessee

Description
Historical activity that resulted in contamination.

This is a former large scale, 40,000 square foot, laundry and drycleaning facility (4 drycleaning machines - 3 petroleum and 1 PCE)that has been renovated and is currently home to a restaurant and several upscale shops. The facility is located in a mixed residential and commercial area of Nashvile. The drycleaner operated from 1931 until 2001 and utilized both Stoddard Solvent and PCE. Prior to 1987 waste still bottoms and liquid were historically discharged into the sanitary sewer via a floor drain located near the drycleaning machines. Additionally, solvent was hand transfered from the distilling unit to the PCE machines using open buckets. The original PCE machines were transfer type machines. The owner of the facility also reported that there had been several incidents where there were spills or the machines had leaked. There are no private wells or municipal water intakes near the facility.

Remediation Status: Site closed


Contaminants
Contaminants present and the highest amount detected in both soil and groundwater.


Contaminant Media Concentration (ppb) Nondetect
cis-1,2-Dichloroethene groundwater
cis-1,2-Dichloroethene soil
Tetrachloroethene (PCE) groundwater
Tetrachloroethene (PCE) soil
Trichloroethene (TCE) groundwater
Trichloroethene (TCE) soil
trans-1,2-Dichloroethene groundwater
Vinyl Chloride groundwater

Site Hydrology

Deepest Significant Groundwater Contamination:  
Plume Size:  
Average Depth to Groundwater:   6ft

Lithology and Subsurface Geology

 
  silty loam and clayey soils mixed with gravel and fill materials
Depth: 0-4ft bgs
4ft thick
Conductivity: 0.482ft/day
Gradient: 0.063ft/ft
Bigby-Cannon series
  limestone
Depth: 4ft bgs

Pathways and DNAPL Presence

checkGroundwater
Sediments
checkSoil
checkDNAPL Present

Vapor Intrusion Pathway

Has the potential for vapor intrusion (VI) been evaluated?
  Yes
How was the site evaluated?
  Soil vapor and/or Sub-slab vapor sampling
Results of VI evaluation:
  The VI pathway was ruled out (or does not exist)
Has a vapor mitigation system been installed?
  No 

Remediation Scenario

Cleanup Goals:
  Lomg term cleanup goals- MNA - EPA MCL's.
Remedy Level:
  Full Scale Remedy

Technologies

In Situ Bioremediation
 

Why the technology was selected:
Bioremediation selected, although the site was not a perfect candidate, due to proximity of water to surface and residential property use. Bioremediation- sodium lactate and 3DMe

Date implemented:
Feb 2004

Final remediation design:
Remedial Design 2004 Soil was excavated from the interior of the building in the locations of the former drycleaning machines (2 locations) and from the exterior (north) where the former USTs were located. On completion of the excavations injection galleries were installed in the pits prior to backfilling with clean fill and re-concreting. A total of 121 tons of soil was disposed of as Special Waste. 2). MEME events(2)were conducted in March 2004 and Novmember 2004. - MEME: Two 4-inch extraction wells (EW-2 and EW-2) were installed into the bedrock to a depth of 31 feet bgs and screened from 6 to 30 feet bgs. These wells and groundwater monitoring wells,MW-1/MW-2 MW-4/MW-5/MW-6, were then used to conduct the MEME events. -Both extraction events were conducted over two consecutive 8 hour days. -Mobile treatment unit was configured for thermal treatment of VOC extracted vapors. Extracted groundwater was contaminated with vinyl chloride and petroleum hydrocarbons. Feb 2005: 1st Injection Event,711 gallons of 20% sodium lactate and 2 gallons of Miracle-Grow solution- gravity fed into the three injection galleries and EW-2 along with 550 gallons of water. Oct 2006: 2nd Injection Event(Prior to this event taking place 6 additional infiltration galleries were installed onsite) 330 gallons of 60% sodium lactate, 990 gallons of dilution water and 24 pints of Miracle-Grow were injected into the galleries. Jan 2007: 3rd Injection Event, 220 gallons of 60% sodium lactate, 675 gallons of dilution water and 24 pints of Miracle-Grow were injected into the galleries. July 2007:4th Injection Event- 220 gallons of 60% sodium lactate, 675 gallons of dilution water and 24 pints of Miracle-Grow were injected into the galleries. April 2008: 5th Injection Event - 220 gallons of 60% sodium lactate, 660 gallons of dilution water were injected into the galleries and MW-3. 6).April 2008: 6th Injection Event- Prior to this event three injection wells IW-1, IW-2 and IW-3 were installed (north exterior) in an area hydrologically upgradient of existing points because existing radius of influence was not reaching MW-9 area. These 6-inch wells were advanced to 38.5, 36.0 and 38.0 feet bgs. The upper 20 feet of each well was completed with the remaining length remaining unfinished. The upper annular space between the PVC pipe and the boring wall was then sealed with packers and then bentonite. Once the wells had set 3DMe Solution was injected into them, and three of the injection galleries and MW-3 and MW-9 (after injection wells must be surged to ensure amendment is clear of the well). A total of 1,891 gallons of the 3DMe solutions mixed with dilution water was injected into these points over a period of 5-days in April and May 2008.

Results to date:
Pre-remediation contaminant levels: February 2004 PCE - 1.2 mg/L TCE - 0.49 mg/L DCE - 4.8 mg/L VC - 3.2 mg/L Post-injection contaminant levels: October 2008 (Last sampling event) PCE - .020 mg/L TCE - .004 mg/L DCE - .360 mg/L VC - .001 mg/L

Next Steps:
Site closure October 8, 2009

In Situ Multi Phase Extraction
 

Why the technology was selected:
Mobile Enhanced Multi-phase Extraction (MEME) - This technology was selected to remove contaminantion in the vadose and top of water zone.

Date implemented:
Feb 2004

Final remediation design:
Remedial Design 2004 Soil was excavated from the interior of the building in the locations of the former drycleaning machines (2 locations) and from the exterior (north) where the former USTs were located. On completion of the excavations injection galleries were installed in the pits prior to backfilling with clean fill and re-concreting. A total of 121 tons of soil was disposed of as Special Waste. 2). MEME events(2)were conducted in March 2004 and Novmember 2004. - MEME: Two 4-inch extraction wells (EW-2 and EW-2) were installed into the bedrock to a depth of 31 feet bgs and screened from 6 to 30 feet bgs. These wells and groundwater monitoring wells,MW-1/MW-2 MW-4/MW-5/MW-6, were then used to conduct the MEME events. -Both extraction events were conducted over two consecutive 8 hour days. -Mobile treatment unit was configured for thermal treatment of VOC extracted vapors. Extracted groundwater was contaminated with vinyl chloride and petroleum hydrocarbons. Feb 2005: 1st Injection Event,711 gallons of 20% sodium lactate and 2 gallons of Miracle-Grow solution- gravity fed into the three injection galleries and EW-2 along with 550 gallons of water. Oct 2006: 2nd Injection Event(Prior to this event taking place 6 additional infiltration galleries were installed onsite) 330 gallons of 60% sodium lactate, 990 gallons of dilution water and 24 pints of Miracle-Grow were injected into the galleries. Jan 2007: 3rd Injection Event, 220 gallons of 60% sodium lactate, 675 gallons of dilution water and 24 pints of Miracle-Grow were injected into the galleries. July 2007:4th Injection Event- 220 gallons of 60% sodium lactate, 675 gallons of dilution water and 24 pints of Miracle-Grow were injected into the galleries. April 2008: 5th Injection Event - 220 gallons of 60% sodium lactate, 660 gallons of dilution water were injected into the galleries and MW-3. 6).April 2008: 6th Injection Event- Prior to this event three injection wells IW-1, IW-2 and IW-3 were installed (north exterior) in an area hydrologically upgradient of existing points because existing radius of influence was not reaching MW-9 area. These 6-inch wells were advanced to 38.5, 36.0 and 38.0 feet bgs. The upper 20 feet of each well was completed with the remaining length remaining unfinished. The upper annular space between the PVC pipe and the boring wall was then sealed with packers and then bentonite. Once the wells had set 3DMe Solution was injected into them, and three of the injection galleries and MW-3 and MW-9 (after injection wells must be surged to ensure amendment is clear of the well). A total of 1,891 gallons of the 3DMe solutions mixed with dilution water was injected into these points over a period of 5-days in April and May 2008.

Results to date:
Pre-remediation contaminant levels: February 2004 PCE - 1.2 mg/L TCE - 0.49 mg/L DCE - 4.8 mg/L VC - 3.2 mg/L Post-injection contaminant levels: October 2008 (Last sampling event) PCE - .020 mg/L TCE - .004 mg/L DCE - .360 mg/L VC - .001 mg/L

Next Steps:
Site closure October 8, 2009

Ex Situ Soil Removal
 

Why the technology was selected:
Excavation - Soil source area removal: Due to the shallow soil horizon at this site it was determined that removing soil from under the building and in the areas of the former solvent USTs was the most cost effective way to treat the soil contamination.

Date implemented:
Feb 2004

Final remediation design:
Remedial Design 2004 Soil was excavated from the interior of the building in the locations of the former drycleaning machines (2 locations) and from the exterior (north) where the former USTs were located. On completion of the excavations injection galleries were installed in the pits prior to backfilling with clean fill and re-concreting. A total of 121 tons of soil was disposed of as Special Waste. 2). MEME events(2)were conducted in March 2004 and Novmember 2004. - MEME: Two 4-inch extraction wells (EW-2 and EW-2) were installed into the bedrock to a depth of 31 feet bgs and screened from 6 to 30 feet bgs. These wells and groundwater monitoring wells,MW-1/MW-2 MW-4/MW-5/MW-6, were then used to conduct the MEME events. -Both extraction events were conducted over two consecutive 8 hour days. -Mobile treatment unit was configured for thermal treatment of VOC extracted vapors. Extracted groundwater was contaminated with vinyl chloride and petroleum hydrocarbons. Feb 2005: 1st Injection Event,711 gallons of 20% sodium lactate and 2 gallons of Miracle-Grow solution- gravity fed into the three injection galleries and EW-2 along with 550 gallons of water. Oct 2006: 2nd Injection Event(Prior to this event taking place 6 additional infiltration galleries were installed onsite) 330 gallons of 60% sodium lactate, 990 gallons of dilution water and 24 pints of Miracle-Grow were injected into the galleries. Jan 2007: 3rd Injection Event, 220 gallons of 60% sodium lactate, 675 gallons of dilution water and 24 pints of Miracle-Grow were injected into the galleries. July 2007:4th Injection Event- 220 gallons of 60% sodium lactate, 675 gallons of dilution water and 24 pints of Miracle-Grow were injected into the galleries. April 2008: 5th Injection Event - 220 gallons of 60% sodium lactate, 660 gallons of dilution water were injected into the galleries and MW-3. 6).April 2008: 6th Injection Event- Prior to this event three injection wells IW-1, IW-2 and IW-3 were installed (north exterior) in an area hydrologically upgradient of existing points because existing radius of influence was not reaching MW-9 area. These 6-inch wells were advanced to 38.5, 36.0 and 38.0 feet bgs. The upper 20 feet of each well was completed with the remaining length remaining unfinished. The upper annular space between the PVC pipe and the boring wall was then sealed with packers and then bentonite. Once the wells had set 3DMe Solution was injected into them, and three of the injection galleries and MW-3 and MW-9 (after injection wells must be surged to ensure amendment is clear of the well). A total of 1,891 gallons of the 3DMe solutions mixed with dilution water was injected into these points over a period of 5-days in April and May 2008.

Results to date:
Pre-remediation contaminant levels: February 2004 PCE - 1.2 mg/L TCE - 0.49 mg/L DCE - 4.8 mg/L VC - 3.2 mg/L Post-injection contaminant levels: October 2008 (Last sampling event) PCE - .020 mg/L TCE - .004 mg/L DCE - .360 mg/L VC - .001 mg/L

Next Steps:
Site closure October 8, 2009

Costs

Cost for Assessment:
 
Cost for Operation and Maintenance:
 
Total Costs for Cleanup:
  $339,480.04

Contacts

TN Department of Environment and Coservation
Division of Remediation
Drycleaner Response Program
401 Church Street, Nashville, TN 37243
615.532.0900

Malcolm Pfotenhauer
TVG Environmental, Inc.
220 Great Circle Road, Suite 112
Nashville, TN 37228
615.292.6252