Drycleaner Site Profiles

Blacks Cleaners, Portland, Oregon

Description
Historical activity that resulted in contamination.

The Blacks dry cleaner facility site is located in a densely developed commercial/residential area in southeast Portland, Oregon. The site is bounded by commercial properties to the south and residential properties to the north, west, and east. Various dry cleaners have operated at the site since the early 1950s. Stoddard solvent was used until 1959, when perchloroethene (PCE) cleaning began. The facility continues to operate as a dry cleaning establishment. Releases of dry cleaning solvents are apparently due to historical disposal of lint and filter media out the back door, releases to subsurface through concrete beneath the dry cleaning machine, releases from sanitary sewer lines, and leaks from 2 former underground storage tanks.

Contaminants
Contaminants present and the highest amount detected in both soil and groundwater.


Contaminant Media Concentration (ppb) Nondetect
cis-1,2-Dichloroethene soil 10,900 ppb
cis-1,2-Dichloroethene soil 10,900 ppb
No corresponding contaminant soil 10,900 ppb
ethylbenzene soil 10,900 ppb
free-phase Stoddard's Solvent soil 10,900 ppb
Tetrachloroethene (PCE) soil 10,900 ppb
Tetrachloroethene (PCE) soil 10,900 ppb
1,2,4-trimethylbenzene soil 10,900 ppb
1,3,5-trimethylbenzene soil 10,900 ppb
Trichloroethene (TCE) soil 10,900 ppb
Trichloroethene (TCE) soil 10,900 ppb
Vinyl Chloride soil 10,900 ppb
Vinyl Chloride soil 10,900 ppb
xylenes soil 10,900 ppb
groundwater 12 ppb
soil 3,990,000 ppb
soil 91,600 ppb
groundwater 180 ppb
groundwater 35 ppb
soil 140 ppb

Site Hydrology

Deepest Significant Groundwater Contamination:   20ft bgs
Plume Size:   Plume Length: 250ft
Plume Width: 150ft
Plume Thickness: 20ft
Average Depth to Groundwater:   9ft

Lithology and Subsurface Geology

 
  low permeability silty clay
Depth: 0-9ft bgs
9ft thick
Conductivity: 0.28ft/day
Gradient: 0.08ft/ft
 
  silty sand
Depth: 9-18ft bgs
9ft thick
 
  Coarse-grained gravels and sands
Depth: 18ft bgs

Pathways and DNAPL Presence

checkGroundwater
Sediments
checkSoil
checkDNAPL Present

Remediation Scenario

Cleanup Goals:
  Cleanup goals for soil and groundwater will primarily be based on vapor intrusion into buildings. Preliminary remediation goals for groundwater approximately 1.3 ppm for PCE, 110 ppb for TCE and 20 ppb vinyl chloride. Soil goals are 1.5 ppm PCE, and 0.098 ppm for TCE
Remedy Level:
  Interim Action

Technologies

in Situ Bioremediation
 

Why the technology was selected:
Removal action unable to achieve removal of source material beneath building. Dense development and access constraints limit use of SVE or other typical remedial approaches.

Date implemented:
Full-scale in-situ bioremediation removal action initated in summer 2002, and several additional events completed since that time. The last event was completed in 2010.

Date completed:
2010

Final remediation design:
System includeed three horizontal injection points beneath building footprint, horizontal injection system in former source area behind building, and several vertical injection wells between dry cleaner faciliity and adjacent apartment building. System was augmented by direct push injections.

Other technologies used:
CL-Out BioRem H-10 NutriChlor Newman Zone

Results to date:
Bioremediation has virtually eliminated PCE and TCE: bulk of contamination remaining is CIS-DCE. Air monitoring has demonstrated protective levels in site building and also nearby residences. Site is ready for closure.

Next Steps:
Administrative activities to prepare for and implement site closure.

Cost to Design and Implement:
all technologies: $425,000

in Situ Chemical Oxidation
 

Why the technology was selected:
Removal action unable to achieve removal of source material beneath building. Dense development and access constraints limit use of SVE or other typical remedial approaches.

Date implemented:
Full-scale in-situ bioremediation removal action initated in summer 2002, and several additional events completed since that time. The last event was completed in 2010.

Date completed:
2010

Final remediation design:
System includeed three horizontal injection points beneath building footprint, horizontal injection system in former source area behind building, and several vertical injection wells between dry cleaner faciliity and adjacent apartment building. System was augmented by direct push injections.

Other technologies used:
CL-Out BioRem H-10 NutriChlor Newman Zone

Results to date:
Bioremediation has virtually eliminated PCE and TCE: bulk of contamination remaining is CIS-DCE. Air monitoring has demonstrated protective levels in site building and also nearby residences. Site is ready for closure.

Next Steps:
Administrative activities to prepare for and implement site closure.

Cost to Design and Implement:
all technologies: $425,000

in Situ Soil Removal
 

Why the technology was selected:
Removal action unable to achieve removal of source material beneath building. Dense development and access constraints limit use of SVE or other typical remedial approaches.

Date implemented:
Full-scale in-situ bioremediation removal action initated in summer 2002, and several additional events completed since that time. The last event was completed in 2010.

Date completed:
2010

Final remediation design:
System includeed three horizontal injection points beneath building footprint, horizontal injection system in former source area behind building, and several vertical injection wells between dry cleaner faciliity and adjacent apartment building. System was augmented by direct push injections.

Results to date:
Bioremediation has virtually eliminated PCE and TCE: bulk of contamination remaining is CIS-DCE. Air monitoring has demonstrated protective levels in site building and also nearby residences. Site is ready for closure.

Next Steps:
Administrative activities to prepare for and implement site closure.

Cost to Design and Implement:
all technologies: $425,000

in Situ Chemical Oxidation
 

Why the technology was selected:
Removal action unable to achieve removal of source material beneath building. Dense development and access constraints limit use of SVE or other typical remedial approaches.

Next Steps:
Administrative activities to prepare for and implement site closure.

Cost to Design and Implement:
all technologies: $425,000

ex Situ Soil Removal
 

Why the technology was selected:
Removal action unable to achieve removal of source material beneath building. Dense development and access constraints limit use of SVE or other typical remedial approaches.

Next Steps:
Administrative activities to prepare for and implement site closure.

Cost to Design and Implement:
all technologies: $425,000

Costs

Cost for Assessment:
  $139,000
Cost for Operation and Maintenance:
  None
Total Costs for Cleanup:
  $564,000

Lessons Learned

Cis-DCE apparently had adsorbed to residual stoddard solvent,and stalled reductive dechlorianation. Some source areas appear to remain in vadose zone and are not directly addressed with GW treatment, but appears to have displaced DNAPL lower into water column where more robust reductive dechlorination could occur.

Also, the operating dry cleaner, before switching to a non-PCE solvent, was the likely source of low level PCE as opposed to soil gas and vapor intrusion.

Contacts

Mark Pugh
Oregon Department of Environmental Quality
2020 SW 4th Avenue, Suite 400
Portland, OR 97201

EMAIL:Pugh.mark@deq.state.or.us

Site Specific References

Expanded Vapor Assessment Report, August 24, 2005,

Bioremediation Substrate Recommendation
Blacks Cleaners
4615 SE Hawthorne Boulevard
Portland, Oregon
Task Order No. 59-08-22, July 17, 2009.