Reference Section

Disclaimer: The State Coalition for Remediation of Drycleaners (SCRD) provides a forum for states to share programmatic, technical, and environmental information to improve the remediation of drycleaner sites. The materials and links listed in this section are provided as background for site users. They do not represent SCRD opinions or policies and do not constitute endorsement of any Web site, product, or service.

Multimedia Presentations

SCRD CLU-IN Seminar: Conducting Contamination Assessment at Drycleaning Sites
This archived seminar from June 8, 2011 presents information from a guidance document on conducting contamination assessment work at drycleaning sites. (Run time: 2 hours, 30 minutes)

Regulatory/Compliance Issues at Perchloroethylene Drycleaners
This presentation discusses the drycleaning process, waste streams, historical operation and waste management practices and targeted site assessment areas

Tour a Drycleaning Operation (PDF) (37pp, 5MB)
Ever wonder what happens to your garments after you drop them off at the drycleaner? Find out by taking the Drycleaning Virtual Tour.

In Situ Alcohol Flushing for the Remediation of NAPL Source Zones
This video describes the use of In Situ Alcohol Flushing at 3 test sites, and it's implications as a cost effective means of remediating drycleaner sites.
Run time: 28 minutes. (requires Realplayer)

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General Information

Bibliography of Drycleaning Resources A combination of reference lists compiled by SCRD's Project Management/Technical Issues Subgroup from a variety of sources, including journal articles, presentations and posters from conferences, book chapters, and articles from newspapers and magazines. You may browse or search the bibliography online.

Chemicals in the Environment: Perchloroethylene
Summarizes what perchloroethylene is, how it is used, and how people can be exposed. Also describes what happens to perc in the environment as well as its effects on human health and the environment.

Chemicals Used in Drycleaning Operations (PDF) (17 pp, 91K)
Chemicals Search Menu
Information on Chemicals Used in Drycleaning Operations is available as a viewable/ downloadable document and in a searchable, on-line database. These resources are intended to help those engaged in the assessment and remediation of contaminated drycleaner sites and to assist regulators conducting compliance inspections at drycleaning facilities. The document provides current and historical information on the types of chemicals solvents, other chemicals, pre-cleaning/spotting agents, garment treatments, and solvent and equipment maintenance materials used in drycleaning operations. The database provides information on drycleaning products/trade names (as listed on Material Data Safety Sheets), who manufactures or distributes them, what the products are used for in drycleaning operations, what chemical ingredients each product contains, the CAS number for each chemical ingredient, any alternate name by which these chemicals are known, and any additional information available.

A Chronology of Historical Developments in Drycleaning (PDF) (10 pp, 55K) This document contains historical information on drycleaning solvents, equipment, and regulations.

Dow Corning TSCA Report on Decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (Green Earth®) (PDF) (6 pp, 375K) This paper is the TSCA Section 8(e) Notification of Substantial Risk concerning decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (DMCPS3D5), a chemical used in drycleaning and known as Green Earth®. The report, submitted in February 2003, provides preliminary results of an ongoing 24-month Dow Corning study of the effects in Fischer 344 rats of exposure to varying vapor concentrations of DMCPS3D5.

Glossary of Drycleaning Terms
Comprehensive listing of terms related to the drycleaning industry. This glossary was produced by SCRD member Bill Linn.

Household Products Database
Hosted by the National Library of Medicine, the Household Products Database collects information from a variety of publicly available sources including brand-specific labels and Material Safety Data Sheets provided by manufacturers and manufacturers' web sites.

Material Safety Data Sheet for Perchloroethylene Information on the components of the the drycleaning solvent Perchloroethylene, the physical, health and fire hazards of the solvent and information on how to handle a spill.

Physical Properties of Chemicals Used in Drycleaning Operations
Download MS Excel Spreadsheet (23K) | Download Printable Chart (PDF) (51K/2 pp)
This spreadsheet contains the physical properties of chlorinated and nonchlorinated solvents used in drycleaning operations

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Drycleaning Processes

Cleaner Technologies Substitututes Assessment for Professional Fabricare Processes (PDF) (1.9MB/452pp)
Provides comparative cost, risk, and performance information on professional fabricare technologies.

The Dry Cleaning Process (PDF) (91K/6pp)
An overview of traditional drycleaning processes.

Proceedings: Apparel Care and the Environment - Alternative Technologies and Labelin (PDF) (3.0MB/216pp)
The Apparel Care and the Environment: Alternative Technologies and Labeling conference brought together stakeholders to learn about developments in alternative technologies and care labeling, and to discuss the focus of future efforts. This document contains transcribed presentations, copies of the papers presented during the conference, and a summary of discussion sessions.

Training Curriculum for Alternative Clothes Cleaning (PDF) (488K/119pp)
This training course teaches garment care professionals and staff about wet cleaning. Developed by the University of Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Institute, this course explains how wet cleaning works and how to operate a wet cleaning facility. The course also explains how to convert a dry cleaning facility to a wet cleaning facility.

Wet Cleaning (PDF) (231K/19pp)
Explains the process of wet cleaning and how it differs from drycleaning, and summarizes EPA’s involvement in the garment care industry. Also lists over 120 establishments throughout the United States and Canada that currently have wet cleaning capabilities.

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Innovative Technologies

Analysis of Selected Enhancements for Soil Vapor Extraction (PDF) (3.2MB/246pp)
This report provides an engineering analysis of, and status report on, selected enhancements for soil vapor extraction (SVE) treatment technologies. The report is intended to assist project managers considering an SVE treatment system by providing them with an up-to-date status of enhancement technologies; an evaluation of each technology's applicability to various site conditions; a presentation of cost and performance information; a list of vendors specializing in the technologies; a discussion of relative strengths and limitations of the technologies; recommendations to keep in mind when considering the enhancements; and a compilation of references.

Assessment of Subsurface Chlorinated Solvent Contamination Using Tree Cores at the Front Street Site and a Former Dry Cleaning Facility at the Riverfront Superfund Site, New Haven, Missouri, 1999–2003 (PDF) (699K/41pp) This report presents the results of tree-core sampling that was successfully used to determine the presence and extent of chlorinated solvent contamination at two sites, the Front Street site (operable unit OU1) and the former dry clean-ing facility, that are part of the overall Riverfront Superfund Site.

Bibliography for Innovative Site Clean-Up Technologies, March 1998 Update (PDF) (244K/16pp) Order EPA 542-B-98-001 Provides information about EPA publications, programs, and resources dealing with innovative site clean-up technologies. Last updated in March 1998.

Citizen's Guides The Technology Innovation Office produced this series of fact sheets that explain, in basic terms, the operation and application of innovative treatment technologies for remediating sites.

Color-Tec® Method Description And Standard Operating Procedures (PDF) (389K/21pp)
Color-Tec® is a field-based analytical method developed by Ecology and Environment, Inc. in 1997. The method combines the use of colorimetric gas detector tubes (originally designed for occupational breathing-zone monitoring) with sample purging to detect very low (ppb-range) concentrations of chlorinated compounds in groundwater and soil samples. Please contact Perry Kelso at for more information.

Considerations Regarding Application of Permanganate for Remedies in Tennessee (PDF) (51K/11pp) The purpose of this document is to educate regulators and project managers about the DNAPL problem and to spotlight a selection of emerging characterization and remediation technologies for DNAPLs. Note: The mention of specific companies or brand names in this document does not constitute an endorsement of any specific vendor or product.

Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids: Review of Emerging Characterization and Remediation Technologies (PDF) (277K/81pp) The purpose of this document is to educate regulators and project managers about the DNAPL problem and to spotlight a selection of emerging characterization and remediation technologies for DNAPLs.

Emerging Technology Bulletin (PDF) (63K/2pp)
Two-zone PCE bioremediation system. Hard copies available from National Center for Environmental Publications and Information, 1-800-490-9198.

Enhanced Reductive Dechlorination and the Relationship Between CIS-1,2-DCE Accumulation and Methanogenesis (PDF) (103K/11pp) Enhanced reductive dechlorination is a viable technology for treating chlorinated ethenes whether implemented through the addition of Hydrogen Releasing Compound (HRCTM), molasses, sodium lactate, vegetable oil, or other organic carbon sources. However, no technology works equally well at every site, and it is important to understand the complexities of the local microbial community. This paper, by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection and Geosyntec, describes a problem that appears relatively common at sites undergoing enhanced reductive dechlorination, the accumulation of cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cis-1,2-DCE). In addition, this paper provides a cost analysis of this treatment technology.

Field Applications of Remediation Technologies: Permeable Reactive Barriers (PDF) (142K/122pp)
A status report on the use of permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) for ground-water remediation in the United States, Canada, and selected locations abroad. This report is intended to provide site owners and managers with a central source of information about the use of PRBs. Included in this report are 30+ profiles of ongoing and completed pilot- and full-scale PRB demonstrations as well as full-scale installations.

In Situ Remediation Technology Status Reports Describes field demonstrations or full-scale applications of various technologies for nonaqueous phase liquids and ground water treatment.

The Remediation Technologies Screening Matrix Provides critical information on commercially available alternative treatment technologies and combines selected features of several EPA, DOD, and DOE publications. The online version of the matrix provides users with search capabilities.

Resource Guide for Garment and Textile Care Professionals (PDF) (572K/16pp)
This guide provides printed and electronic information resources covering a wide range of topics and organizations pertaining to garment and textile care. It is helpful to cleaners and others hoping to learn more about the issues currently facing the garment and textile care industries.

Technology News and Trends newsletter
A newsletter that provides descriptions and performance data for innovative source control technologies that have been applied in the field.

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Vapor Intrusion

Vapor Intrusion Newsletter
A quarterly newsletter produced by EnviroGroup on Vapor Intrusion topics.

The Redfield Site
This website provides information on the environmental investigation and remediation efforts related to the former Redfield Site property. including determining whether solvent vapors, particularly from the chemical 1,1-DCE, have migrated from groundwater through the soil and into residential foundations in homes near the site.

OSWER Draft Guidance for Evaluating the Vapor Intrusion to Indoor Air Pathway from Groundwater and Soils (Subsurface Vapor Intrusion Guidance)
This draft EPA guidance provides current technical and policy recommendations on determining if the vapor intrusion pathway poses an unacceptable risk to human health at cleanup sites. It is intended to aid in evaluating the potential for human exposure from this pathway given the state-of-the-science.

Johnson and Ettinger (1991) Model for Subsurface Vapor Intrusion into Buildings This describes a series of models developed by EPA in 1998 for estimating indoor air concentrations and associated health risks from subsurface vapor intrusion into buildings that were based on the analytical solutions of Johnson and Ettinger (2001) for contaminant partitioning and subsurface vapor transport into buildings.

Archived CLU-IN Internet Seminar This seminar provides an overview of the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER) Draft Guidance for Evaluating the Vapor Intrusion To Indoor Air Pathway from Groundwater and Soils. Other useful resources are also linked from the seminar. Run time: 2 hours, 30 minutes.

EPA ORD Engineering Issue Paper: Indoor Air Vapor Intrusion Mitigation Approaches (PDF) (627.05K/49pp)
Prepared by EPA's Office of Research and Development (ORD), this paper is focused on the mitigation of vapor intrusion to prevent human exposure to anthropogenic soil and groundwater contaminants. This document is designed to provide sufficient information to allow the reader to understand the range of mitigation technologies available. The document also provides information on selecting appropriate technologies in consultation with qualified engineering and risk management professionals.

Vapor Intrusion Mitigation in Construction of New Buildings Fact Sheet (PDF) (5.21MB/8pp) Prepared by the Navy Alternative Restoration Technology Team (ARTT) workgroup, this fact sheet provides an overview of VI mitigation methods used in new buildings, along with important factors to consider when selecting and designing these mitigation systems.

ITRC Technical and Regulatory Guidance–Vapor Intrusion Pathway: A Practical Guideline (PDF) (3.15MB, 172pp) This guideline, which was developed by the Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council (ITRC) Vapor Intrusion Team, is a practical, easy-to-read, how-to guideline for assessing the vapor intrusion pathway.